3Where to go? Breeding objectives How to get there? Selection Mating Estimation of breeding valuePhenotypePedigreeBLUPGenetic markerTraits measurementsMilk, growth, carcass, fertilityMales vs femalesDNA technologyReproductive technologySelectionMating
4Biotechnology in Animal Breeding DNA technologyGene recombinationGenetic engineeringGenetic markersGenetic mapsDNA fingerprintReproductive technologyMOETIVM, IVFEmbryo sexingNuclear transplantation
5Gene selecting Isolation of DNA (gene selecting I) Objective - ค้นหายีนที่ควบคุมลักษณะจากดีเอ็นเอหลักการDNA extraction จากเลือด หรือเนื้อเยื่อDNA library (จัดเก็บเป็นฐานข้อมูล)DNA sequencing (หาลำดับเบส)Gene synthesis หรือ gene cloning in vectorGene purification (แยกยีนที่คัดเลือกได้)
6Isolation of mRNA (gene selecting II) หลักการSynthesis complementary DNA (cDNA) from mRNA or proteinDNA cloningGene purificationDNATranscriptionRNAProteinReverse transcriptaseTranslation
8Researchers in the UK report that they have developed chickens that are genetically modified to prevent them spreading bird flu.(Credit: Image courtesy of University of Cambridge)
9Gene Marker Association Candidate genes for growth and carcassGHSR = Ghrelin receptorIGF-I = Insulin like growth factor IcGH = chickenIGFBP2 = IGF binding protein II A CSignificant effect of IGF1 for EBV were foundTable: LSM for IGF1 genotype in CHEEnBreast WidthBW16ADG0-16IGF-IAA561.31,474.3 a12.9 aAC2058.51,285.8 b11.2 bCC4357.71,251.4 b10.9 bSEM1.6862.200.56
11การตรวจสอบหา halothane gene ในสุกรโดยใช้ เทคนิค PCR Porcine stress syndromeการตรวจสอบหา halothane gene ในสุกรโดยใช้ เทคนิค PCRM NN nn nn nn nn nn nn nn nn Nn NN Nn Nn nn nn nnภาพการตรวจสอบหา Halothane gene ในสุกร โดยที่NN คือสุกรปกติ ,Nn คือสุกรที่เป็นพาหะnn คือสุกรที่มี Halothane
12Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene Mutations that reduce the production of functional myostatin (MSTN) lead to an overgrowth of muscle tissueBelgian Blue bull showing the double muscling phenotype
13Impacts of the footrot gene-marker test on New Zealand sheep farming Footrot is a disease that costs New Zealand sheep farmers over $80 million a year to treat. Selective breeding using a Footrot Gene-Marker Test (FGMT) could significantly reduce the amount of footrot on farms.In 1997, Dr Jon Hickford and a team of researchers at Lincoln University isolated a gene that was linked to susceptibility or resistance to footrot. The scientists used their discovery to develop the Footrot Gene-Marker Test (FGMT) for use on farms.
14Genetic mapsA genetic map is a representation of the genes on a chromosome arrayed in linear order w ith distances between loci expressed as percent recombination (map units, centimorgans). Also called a linkage map.
26Reproductive Technology Artificial Insemination (A.I.)Embryo Transfer and Related TechnologyMOETIVM and IVFCryopreservative of embryo and oocyteSex ControlEmbryo sexingSperm sexingCloningNuclear transplantationEmbryo splitting
35Steps in the IVF-ET Processes 2. normally fertilized eggs will have 2 nuclei in the center, one from the egg and one from the sperm.1. the sperm are physically injected into egg3. the best quality embryos will have 8 cells.4. compacted embryos on day 3.6. embryos that have continued development in culture and have developed to the blastocyst stage may be frozen.5. development should be at the blastocyst stageที่มา : ivf/phototour.cfm
47Ethical issues in animal biotechnology Animal rights- Recent action to allow animals to be patented reinforces the idea of animals as human property, rather than beings in their own right.
48Transgenic animals and religious food laws Animal welfare - Modern pigs have been bred to grow extra fast - some breeds now grow too fast for their hearts, causing discomfort when animals are too active Broiler chickens are bred to grow fast - some now grow too fast for their legsTransgenic animals and religious food laws- Transgenic animals pose problems for religions that restrict the foods that their believers can eat, since they may produce animals that appear to be one species, but contain some elements of a forbidden species.