Probiotics Prebiotics Immunobiotics Xenobiotics Single cell protein Nutritio n Artificial insemination Embryo transfer Cloning In Vitro Fertilization Recombinant hormone Reprodu ction Transgenic animal Gene markers Genetic diversity Breedin g
Traits measurements Milk, growth, carcass, fertility Males vs females Where to go? How to get there? Reproductive technology Estimation of breeding value ▫ Phenotype ▫ Pedigree ▫ BLUP ▫ Genetic marker DNA technology SelectionMating
DNA technology Gene recombination Genetic engineering Genetic markers Genetic maps DNA fingerprint Reproductive technology MOET IVM, IVF Embryo sexing Nuclear transplantation
Isolation of DNA (gene selecting I) Objective - ค้นหายีนที่ควบคุมลักษณะจากดีเอ็นเอ หลักการ DNA extraction จากเลือด หรือเนื้อเยื่อ DNA library ( จัดเก็บเป็นฐานข้อมูล ) DNA sequencing ( หาลำดับเบส ) Gene synthesis หรือ gene cloning in vector Gene purification ( แยกยีนที่คัดเลือกได้ )
Isolation of mRNA (gene selecting II) หลักการ - Synthesis complementary DNA (cDNA) from mRNA or protein - DNA cloning - Gene purification DNA Transcription RNA Protein Translation Reverse transcriptase
Researchers in the UK report that they have developed chickens that are genetically modified to prevent them spreading bird flu. (Credit: Image courtesy of University of Cambridge)
n Breast Width BW16 ADG 0-16 IGF-I AA561.31,474.3 a 12.9 a AC2058.51,285.8 b 11.2 b CC4357.71,251.4 b 10.9 b SEM1.6862.200.56 GHSR= Ghrelin receptor IGF-I= Insulin like growth factor I cGH = chicken IGFBP2= IGF binding protein II A A C C Candidate genes for growth and carcass Significant effect of IGF1 for EBV were found Table: LSM for IGF1 genotype in CHEE
Selection Index Genotyping and Selection vIGF1 – allele A Selection HSP70 – C1C2 Avoiding HSP70 – M1M2 Genotyping and Selection vIGF1 – allele A Selection HSP70 – C1C2 Avoiding HSP70 – M1M2 MAS
M NN nn nn nn nn nn nn nn nn Nn NN Nn Nn nn nn nn ภาพการตรวจสอบหา Halothane gene ในสุกร โดยที่ NN คือสุกรปกติ, Nn คือสุกรที่เป็นพาหะ nn คือสุกรที่มี Halothane Porcine stress syndrome
Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene Belgian Blue bull showing the double muscling phenotype Mutations that reduce the production of functional myostatin (MSTN) lead to an overgrowth of muscle tissue
Impacts of the footrot gene- marker test on New Zealand sheep farming Footrot is a disease that costs New Zealand sheep farmers over $80 million a year to treat. Selective breeding using a Footrot Gene- Marker Test (FGMT) could significantly reduce the amount of footrot on farms. In 1997, Dr Jon Hickford and a team of researchers at Lincoln University isolated a gene that was linked to susceptibility or resistance to footrot. The scientists used their discovery to develop the Footrot Gene-Marker Test (FGMT) for use on farms.genesusceptibilityMarker In 1997, Dr Jon Hickford and a team of researchers at Lincoln University isolated a gene that was linked to susceptibility or resistance to footrot. The scientists used their discovery to develop the Footrot Gene-Marker Test (FGMT) for use on farms.genesusceptibilityMarker
Genetic maps A genetic map is a representation of the genes on a chromosome arrayed in linear order w ith distances between loci expressed as percent recombination (map units, centimorgans). Also called a linkage map.
Artificial Insemination (A.I.) Embryo Transfer and Related Technology ▪ MOET ▪ IVM and IVF Cryopreservative of embryo and oocyte Sex Control ▪ Embryo sexing ▪ Sperm sexing Cloning ▪ Nuclear transplantation ▪ Embryo splitting
ที่มา : www.stronghealth.com/.../ ivf/phototour.cfmwww.stronghealth.com/.../ ivf/phototour.cfm 1. the sperm are physically injected into egg 2. normally fertilized eggs will have 2 nuclei in the center, one from the egg and one from the sperm. 6. embryos that have continued development in culture and have developed to the blastocyst stage may be frozen. 3. the best quality embryos will have 8 cells. 4. compacted embryos on day 3. 5. development should be at the blastocyst stage
Ethical issues in animal biotechnology Animal rights - Recent action to allow animals to be patented reinforces the idea of animals as human property, rather than beings in their own right.
Transgenic animals and religious food laws - Transgenic animals pose problems for religions that restrict the foods that their believers can eat, since they may produce animals that appear to be one species, but contain some elements of a forbidden species.