เนื้อหา Sex and sexuality Psychosexual development Sexual identity and gender Identity Gender Identity disorder
Sex v.s. Gender " Sex " refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. " Gender " refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. "Male" and "female" sex category “Masculine" and "feminine " gender category
II. Gender Identity  A subjective, but continuous and persistent, sense of oneself as masculine or feminine. เป็นภาวะทางจิตใจซึ่งสะท้อน ความรู้สึกภายในว่าต้องการเป็นเพศ ชายหรือหญิง เด็กเริ่มรับรู้ว่าตัวเองเป็นเพศใด ประมาณ 3 ขวบ
Continuing gender development  Childrearing practices are gender- dependent; we not only name and dress children according to sex, but we also talk to and touch them differently. Throughout the rest of childhood and school years Age 3-4 years: preference for same- sex playmates The gender role is better defined by subsequent interactions.
Continuing gender development  Boys typically prefer more rough activities, often involving physical aggression. Conversely, girls have been thought to prefer quieter activities, with greater reliance on fantasy and imagined situations. In Adolescence: the influential factors compose Sexuality Personality traits or disorders Peer interaction Anxieties
Gender stability The realization that girls grown up to be women, that they don't grow penises and becomes men Little boys realize that their penises will not fall off and that they won't grow a vagina and become a woman
Sexual development during adolescence Puberty is a crucial step in the development of both women and men. Physical maturation is marked by secondary sexual characteristics Girls: breasts and female body shape, begin to menstruate Boys: larger genitals, lower voice, body and facial hair, nocturnal emission (wet dream).
III. Sexual orientation Sexual preference Refers to a person's preference for the same or opposite sex partners Heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual
The rate of homosexual orientation in the general population has been variously estimated between 2% and 10% 52% of the MZ co-twins of male homosexual twins were also homosexual or bisexual. For DZ male twins, this fell to 22% 48% of MZ co-twins of female homosexual twins were also homosexual. Sexual orientation
Homosexuality Normal variation of human life style WHO, 1980, by ICD -10: “sexual orientation alone is not to be regarded as a disorder”
Clinical course Onset of recognizable symptoms usually occurs at 2 to 4 years of age, when sexual identity forms Most individual with symptoms do not develop gender identity disorder, and the behaviors usually gradually disappear Those few children for whom cross-gender behaviors continue through childhood may have gender identity disorder This disorder usually persists throughout the individual’s life
Treatment The goal of treatment is rarely to change the individual’s sexual identity These attempts are usually unsuccessful. Realistic goals include reduction of depression and anxiety and improvement of personal and social adjustment.
Treatment Psychotherapy is often use to decrease depression and anxiety associated with the condition Hormone treatment testosterone or estrogen is often used to change the individual’s physical characteristics and improve sense of well being Gender reassignment surgery may be, but is not always, successful in improving the individual’s personal and social adjustment