2Sex and Gender ‘women’ = female sex + feminine social role Sex refers to your biological roleGender refers to your gender to role‘women’ = female sex + feminine social role‘men’ = male sex + masculine social role
4Sex and GenderSex: refers to the biological differences between male and female. Women can bear and breast-feed children and men impregnate women. These sex-related capacities are genetically determined, universal and unchanging.(Source,Gender Briefing Kit 2000 UNDP Mongolia)
6Gender and their Implications Men are supposed to be…Men often behave…Larger Implications…Strong andbrave- By engaging in risk-taking acts, often using violence- Increased violence against children, women, and men
8Gender and their implications Gender is also a relational concept and implies a relationship between men and women. Gender is not about women: it refers to a structural relationship between men and women. Gender is the socio-economic and political conditions that determine roles, responsibilities, constraints and opportunities of women and men which is linked to the state, the economy, and to other macro- and micro-processes and institutions.
10Gender and Their Implications A Woman’s Place isin the houseHer Role:Care of othersHouse hold workLimitations:Lack of decision-makingpowerCases of violence goingunreported due to lack ofeconomic security oroptions
16Gender rolesGender roles are the assigned activities and relative position in society of men and women.These roles are constructed through forces such as culture, tradition, politics, and norms, varying from culture to cultureWhile one’s sex does not change, gender roles are learned and change over time.Education, technology, economics, and sudden crises like war and famine can cause changes in gender roles.
18Gender rolesGender roles have three aspects: Positions within the social structure indicating where women and men belong or are expected to belong; Rules for behavior and interaction prescribed for men and women; Relationship between women's and men’s roles.
20Gender RelationsGender relations are constituted, like all other social relations, through the rules, norms and practices.Gender relations, in other words, do not operate in a social vacuum but are products of the ways in which institutions are organized and reconstituted over time.Gender relations are, more often than not, unequal. They often signify a relation of subordination and domination between women and men.The condition of their existence and transformation depends upon existing and changing power relations, upon the material conditions which give rise to existing and new forms of gender relations.
22Gender InequalityTo overcome inequality it is important to recognize that unequal relations are made in history through social construction and not in nature and hence can be changed through development intervention by which resources are allocated, tasks and responsibilities are assigned, value is given and power is mobilized.
24Gender’s Participation in Administrative Positions and Politics 2005 WomenMenTotal% of WomenLocal administrative level (Appointed)Governor174751.3Deputy Governor71601654.2District Officer796Bangkok MetropolitanMember of BKK Metropolitan Council11597015.7Member of District Council5430539515Bangkok District Chief (as of 2004)6445012ParliamentariansMember of parliament (elected in 2005)5344750010.6Senator (elected in 2000)2117920010.5Cabinet (in 2005)235375.4National Political Party(Party administrative members)Thairakthai Party81111196.7Democrat Party54910.2Chartthai Party5510.9Mahachon Party13147.1
26SummaryIn most societies, men tend to have broader options, more opportunities and greater access to society’s resources than women. This is the result of a framework of legislation, policies and institutions that incorporate attitudes and practices about what is appropriate to being male and female in a given society
28SummaryWays in which a culture or society defines rights, responsibilities, and identities of men and women in relation to one another.(Source: Gender Equity, Concepts and Tools for development, CEDPA, 1996)
29บทสรุปวิธีการต่างๆ ที่วัฒนธรรมหรือสังคมหนึ่งๆ ได้ กำหนดสิทธิ ความรับผิดชอบ และอัตลักษณ์/ ตัวตน ของชายและหญิง ซึ่งมีความเกี่ยวข้องสัมพันธ์ระหว่างกันเสมอ(ที่มา : Gender Equity, Concepts and Tools for development, CEDPA, 1996)