Introduction High prevalence of malnutrition exists in patients with CKD. Several surveys have reported protein-calorie malnutrition in up to 40% of CKD pts. Risk for malnutrition increases as CKD progresses. Malnutrition in CKD is multifactors. Surveys consistently report inadequate oral intake >>>major contributing factor. Ann Rev Nutr, 2001;21: 343-79
Nutritional Challenges in CKD Undernourished patients with ESRD Significantly increased morbidity : 27% - 43% increased risk for stroke Independently associated with increased mortality. -Results in more & longer hospitalizations & higher health care costs. Negatively affects functioning & quality of life
Serum albumin concentration and survival in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 90, 407–414 (2009).
Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) a lack of adequate energy or protein supply that meets the metabolic demands placed on the body by one or more of the following: inadequate protein intake from dietary sources ingestion of poor quality protein increased demands resulting from disease increased loss of nutrients