Proline เป็น amino acid ที่มีโครงสร้างแตกต่าง กับ amino acid ตัวอื่นๆอย่างไร Hydroxylation ของ Proline มีความสำคัญ เกี่ยวกับการสังเคราะห์ connective tissue จำพวกใด Proline Hydroxyproline Proline มีความเกี่ยวข้องกับ Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) อย่างไร N H COOH Imino group
The principal residue to be hydroxylated in proteins is Proline.Proline The hydroxilation occurs at the C γ atom, forming hydroxyproline (Hyp), an essential element of collagen, in turn a necessary element of connective tissue. hydroxyproline Proline hydroxylation requires ascorbic acid. The most obvious, first effects (gum and hair problems) of absence of ascorbic acid in humans come from the resulting defect in hydroxylation of proline residues of collagen, with reduced stability of the collagen molecule causing scurvy.
Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. It is adapted from cysteamine, pantothenate, and adenosine triphosphate. Pantothenate = Pantothenic acid = Vitamin B 5
Bilirubin (formerly referred to as hematoidin) is the yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. Heme is formed from hemoglobin, a principal component of red blood cells. Bilirubin jaundice Bilirubin is excreted in bile, and its levels are elevated in certain diseases. It is responsible for the yellow colour of bruises and the yellow discolouration in jaundice.
Bilirubin Bilirubin is very similar to the pigment phycobilin used by certain algae to capture light energy, and to the pigment phytochrome used by plants to sense light. All of these contain an open chain of four pyrrolic rings. Like these other pigments, bilirubin changes its conformation when exposed to light. This is used in the phototherapy of jaundiced newborns: the isomer of bilirubin formed upon light exposure is more soluble than the unilluminated isomer.