3Inductive-Deductive Reasoning The development of inductive logic owes a great deal to 19th-century British philosopher John Stuart Mill, who studied different methods of reasoning and experimental inquiry in his work A System of Logic (1843).
4Inductive-Deductive Reasoning Mill was chiefly interested in studying and classifying the different types of reasoning in which we start with observations of events and go on to infer the causes of those events.
5อุปนัย (Inductive Reasoning) หาความจริงด้วยการสังเกตข้อเท็จจริงgeneralizing to produce a universal claim or principle from observed instances.in logic, process of drawing a conclusion about an object or event that has yet to be observed or occur, on the basis of previous observations of similar objects or events.
6อุปนัย (Inductive Reasoning) For example, after observing year after year that a certain kind of weed invades our yard in autumn, we may conclude that next autumn our yard will again be invaded by the weed.มีวัชพืชขึ้นที่สนามหญ้าทุกปีปีหน้าที่สนามหญ้าก็คงมีวัชพืชขึ้นอีก
9นิรนัย (Deductive Reasoning) พิจารณาเหตุผล ลงความเห็นโดยพิจารณาจากหลักทั่วไป เพื่อไปสู่เรื่องเฉพาะA conclusion drawn from available information.
10นิรนัย (Deductive Reasoning) “All P’s are Q’s; t is P (or a P). Therefore, t is Q (or a Q)”are valid, as are arguments that display the form“If A then B; it is not the case that B. Therefore, it is not the case that A.”
11นิรนัย (Deductive Reasoning) If there is life on Pluto, then Pluto has an atmosphere.It is not the case that Pluto has an atmosphere.Therefore, it is not the case that there is life on Pluto.
22Causal Association Strength of Research Design Human Experiment Temporal RelationshipStrength of AssociationDose Respond RelationshipReplication of the FindingsBiologic PlausibilityEpidemiological SenseConsideration of Alternate ExplanationSpecific of AssociationConsistency with a Previously Proven Causal Association