งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 1 Routing Protocol and Concepts หลักสูตรผู้เชี่ยวชาญระบบโครงข่ายการศึกษาขั้น พื้นฐาน (OBEC.

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งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 1 Routing Protocol and Concepts หลักสูตรผู้เชี่ยวชาญระบบโครงข่ายการศึกษาขั้น พื้นฐาน (OBEC."— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:

1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 1 Routing Protocol and Concepts หลักสูตรผู้เชี่ยวชาญระบบโครงข่ายการศึกษาขั้น พื้นฐาน (OBEC Network)

2 2 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts

3 3 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  ลักษณะการส่ง Packet ใน IP Network จะ ส่งทีละ Hop จาก Network หนึ่ง ไปยังอีก Network หนึ่ง  Router จะทำหน้าที่ดังกล่าว เนื่องจาก Router เป็นตัวเชื่อมระหว่าง Network  การส่งจะดูที่ส่วน Prefix ของ IP Address ดังนั้น Router จะต้อง Run IP Protocol คือ ทำงานในระดับ Layer 3  ที่ Router จะมีตารางชื่อ Routing Table ที่ กำหนด IP Address ของ Next Hop

4 4 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  Static Routing : หมายถึงตาราง Routing Table ของ Router แต่ละตัวจะไม่เปลี่ยน ปกติตารางนี้จะถูกกำหนดจาก Network Administration คือตารางนี้จะได้จากการทำ Configuration ของ Router  Dynamic Routing : หมายถึงตาราง Routing Table สามารถเปลี่ยนได้ ตาม สภาวะความคับคั่งของ Network ขณะนั้น หรือจากปัจจัยอื่นๆ โดยมันจะมีการ Update ตลอดเวลา

5 5 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts หน้าที่หลักของ router การพิจารณาคัดเลือกเส้นทางในการ ส่งผ่านข้อมูลไปยังเครือข่ายคอมพิวเตอร์ อื่น ๆ (Internetworking Device) การ ส่งผ่านข้อมูลของ Router จะใช้ โปรโตคอล IP โดยทำงานอยู่บนระดับชั้น ที่ 3 ของแบบจำลอง OSI Model Routers generally have 2 connections: -WAN connection (Connection to ISP) -LAN connection

6 6 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public  Data is sent in form of packets between 2 end devices  Routers are used to direct packet to its destination Routing Protocol and Concepts

7 7 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  Routers examine a packet’s destination IP address and determine the best path by enlisting the aid of a routing table

8 8 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  ส่วนประกอบของ router และ ฟังก์ชั่นการทำงาน CPU Random access memory (RAM) Read-only memory (ROM) Non-volatile RAM (NVRAM) Flash memory Interfaces -Ethernet / fast Ethernet interfaces -Serial interfaces -Management interfaces

9 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  Router components

10 10 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  กระบวนการทำงานของ router Test router hardware Power-On Self Test (POST) Execute bootstrap loader Locate & load Cisco IOS software -Locate IOS -Load IOS Locate & load startup configuration file or enter setup mode -Bootstrap program looks for configuration file

11 11 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  การตรวจสอบข้อมูลของตัว router -The show version command is used to view information about the router during the bootup process. Information includes: Platform model number Image name & IOS version Bootstrap version stored in ROM Image file name & where it was loaded from Number & type of interfaces Amount of NVRAM Amount of flash Configuration register

12 12 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts

13 13 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts Router Interface is a physical connector that enables a router to send or receive packets Each interface connects to a separate network Consist of socket or jack found on the outside of a router Types of router interfaces: -Ethernet -Fastethernet -Serial -DSL -ISDN -Cable

14 14 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  Two major groups of Router Interfaces LAN Interfaces:  Are used to connect router to LAN network  Has a layer 2 MAC address  Can be assigned a Layer 3 IP address  Usually consist of an RJ-45 jack  WAN Interfaces  Are used to connect routers to external networks that interconnect LANs.  Depending on the WAN technology, a layer 2 address may be used.  Uses a layer 3 IP address

15 15 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  Routers and the Network Layer Routers use destination IP address to forward packets  The path a packet takes is determined after a router consults information in the routing table.  After router determines the best path  Packet is encapsulated into a frame  Frame is then placed on network medium in form of Bits

16 16 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocol and Concepts  Routers Operate at Layers 1, 2 & 3  Router receives a stream of encoded bits  Bits are decoded and passed to layer 2  Router de-encapsulates the frame  Remaining packet passed up to layer 3 -Routing decision made at this layer by examining destination IP address  Packet is then re-encapsulated & sent out outbound interface

17 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 17 Static Routing หลักสูตรผู้เชี่ยวชาญระบบโครงข่ายการศึกษาขั้น พื้นฐาน (OBEC Network)

18 18 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public General Role of the Router  Functions of a Router Best Path Selections Forwarding packets to destination  Introducing the Topology series routers connected via WAN links Each router connected to a LAN represented by a switch and a PC

19 19 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public General Role of the Router  Connections of a Router for WAN -A router has a DB-60 port that can support 5 different cabling standards  Connections of a Router for Ethernet - 2 types of connectors can be used: Straight through and Cross- over  Straight through used to connect: -Switch-to-Router, Switch-to-PC, Router-to-Server, Hub-to- PC, Hub-to-Server  Cross-over used to connect: -Switch-to-Switch, PC-to-PC, Switch-to-Hub, Hub-to-Hub, Router-to-Router

20 20 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Interfaces  Examining Router Interfaces - Show IP router command – used to view routing table -Show Interfaces command – used to show status of an interface -Show IP Interface brief command – used to show a portion of the interface information -Show running-config command – used to show configuration file in RAM

21 21 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Interfaces  Configuring an Ethernet interface -By default all serial and Ethernet interfaces are down -To enable an interface use the No Shutdown command

22 22 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Interfaces  Verifying Ethernet interface -Show interfaces for fastEthernet 0/0 – command used to show status of fast Ethernet port -Show ip interface brief -Show running-config  Ethernet interfaces participate in ARP

23 23 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Interfaces  Configuring a Serial interface -Enter interface configuration mode -Enter in the ip address and subnet mask -Enter in the no shutdown command  Example: -R1(config)#interface serial 0/0 -R1(config-if)#ip address R1(config-if)#no shutdown

24 24 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Interfaces  Examining Router Interfaces -Physically connecting a WAN Interface. -A WAN Physical Layer connection has sides:  Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) – This is the service provider. CSU/DSU is a DCE device.  Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Typically the router is the DTE device.

25 25 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Interfaces  Configuring serial links in a lab environment  One side of a serial connection must be considered a DCE  This requires placing a clocking signal – use the clock rate command.  Example: -R1(config)#interface serial 0/0 -R1(config-if)#clockrate  Serial Interfaces require a clock signal to control the timing of the communcations.

26 26 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Table and CDP Protocol  Purpose of the debug ip routing command  Allows you to view changes that the router performs when adding or removing routes  Example: -R2#debug ip routing -IP routing debugging is on

27 27 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Table and CDP Protocol  To configure an Ethernet interface  Example: -R2(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 -R2(config-if)#ip address R2(config-if)#no shutdown

28 28 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Table and CDP Protocol  When a router only has its interfaces configured & no other routing protocols are configured then: -The routing table contains only the directly connected networks -Only devices on the directly connected networks are reachable

29 29 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Table and CDP Protocol

30 30 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Table and CDP Protocol  Checking each route in turn The ping command is used to check end to end connectivity

31 31 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Table and CDP Protocol  Purpose of CDP A layer 2 cisco proprietary tool used to gather information about other directly connected Cisco devices.  Concept of neighbors -2 types of neighbors  Layer 3 neighbors  Layer 2 neighbors

32 32 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Table and CDP Protocol  CDP show commands  Show cdp neighbors command -Displays the following information:  Neighbor device ID  Local interface  Holdtime value, in seconds  Neighbor device capability code  Neighbor hardware platform  Neighbor remote port ID  Show cdp neighbors detail command -Useful in determining if an IP address configuration error

33 33 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Table and CDP Protocol  Disabling CDP To disable CDP globally use the following command Router(config)#no cdp run

34 34 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Static Routes with Exit Interfaces  Purpose of a static route A manually configured route used when routing from a network to a stub network

35 35 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Static Routes with Exit Interfaces  IP route command  To configure a static route use the following command: ip route  Example: -Router(config)# ip route network-address subnet-mask {ip- address | exit-interface }

36 36 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Static Routes with Exit Interfaces  Dissecting static route syntax  ip route - Static route command  – Destination network address  Subnet mask of destination network  Serial 0/0/0 interface IP address on R2, which is the "next-hop" to this network

37 37 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Static Routes with Exit Interfaces  Configuring routes to 2 or more remote networks Use the following commands for R1 -R1(config)#ip route R1(config)#ip route

38 38 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Static Routes with Exit Interfaces  Zinin’s 3 routing principles  Principle 1: "Every router makes its decision alone, based on the information it has in its own routing table.“  Principle 2: "The fact that one router has certain information in its routing table does not mean that other routers have the same information.“  Principle 3: "Routing information about a path from one network to another does not provide routing information about the reverse, or return path."

39 39 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Static Routes with Exit Interfaces  Using Zinin’s 3 routing principles, how would you answer the following? -Would packets from PC1 reach their destination? Yes, packets destined for /24 and /24 networks would reach their destination. -Does this mean that any packets from these networks destined for /24 network will reach their destination? No, because neither R2 nor R3 router has a route to the /24 network.

40 40 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Static Routes with Exit Interfaces  Modifying Static routes  Existing static routes cannot be modified. The old static route must be deleted by placing no in front of the ip route  Example: -no ip route  A new static route must be rewritten in the configuration

41 41 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Static Routes with Exit Interfaces  Verifying the Static Route Configuration -Use the following commands  Step 1 show running-config  Step 2 verify static route has been entered correctly  Step 3 show ip route  Step 4 verify route was configured in routing table  Step 5 issue ping command to verify packets can reach destination and that Return path is working

42 42 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Static Routes with Exit Interfaces  Ethernet interfaces and ARP. – If a static route is configured on an Ethernet link -If the packet is sent to the next-hop router then… the destination MAC address will be the address of the next hop’s Ethernet interface This is found by the router consulting the ARP table. If an entry isn’t found then an ARP request will be sent out

43 43 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Summary and Default Route  Summarizing routes reduces the size of the routing table.  Route summarization is the process of combining a number of static routes into a single static route.

44 44 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Summary and Default Route  Configuring a summary route Step 1: Delete the current static route Step 2: Configure the summary static route Step 3: Verify the new static route

45 45 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Summary and Default Route  Default Static Route  This is a route that will match all packets. Stub routers that have a number of static routes all exiting the same interface are good candidates for a default route. -Like route summarization this will help reduce the size of the routing table  Configuring a default static route  Similar to configuring a static route. Except that destination IP address and subnet mask are all zeros  Example: -Router(config)#ip route [exit-interface | ip- address ]

46 46 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Summary and Default Route  Static routes and subnet masks The routing table lookup process will use the most specific match when comparing destination IP address and subnet mask  Default static routes and subnet masks Since the subnet mask used on a default static route is all packets will match.

47 47 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Summary  ข้อดีของ Static Routing คือง่าย และไม่ต้องใช้ Routing Software(Router จะทำงานน้อยลง ) นอกจากนี้จะไม่ใช้ Resource ของ Network เพราะ Router ไม่ต้องแลกเปลี่ยนข้อมูลกัน  ข้อเสียคือ ตารางเปลี่ยนไม่ได้ ถ้ามี Link Down หรือ Router Down เส้นทางนั้นจะใช้ไม่ได้ ทำให้ การส่งข้อมูลที่กำหนดเส้นทางนั้นหยุดชะงักหรือ ใช้กำหนดสำหรับ Host ที่เชื่อมต่อกับ Network ที่มีทางออกผ่าน Router ตัวเดียว ( คือค่า Gateway)  การใช้ Static Route ควรมีการกำหนด Default Route เสมอ  การทำ Static Route ต้องตรวจสอบให้ดีว่าจะไม่ มี Route Loop

48 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 48 Basic Static Route (LAB 2.8.1) หลักสูตรผู้เชี่ยวชาญระบบโครงข่ายการศึกษาขั้น พื้นฐาน (OBEC Network)

49 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 49 Dynamic Routing Protocol หลักสูตรผู้เชี่ยวชาญระบบโครงข่ายการศึกษาขั้น พื้นฐาน (OBEC Network)

50 50 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Dynamic Routing Protocols  Function(s) of Dynamic Routing Protocols: -Dynamically share information between routers. -Automatically update routing table when topology changes. -Determine best path to a destination.

51 51 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Dynamic Routing Protocols  The purpose of a dynamic routing protocol is to: -Discover remote networks -Maintaining up-to-date routing information -Choosing the best path to destination networks -Ability to find a new best path if the current path is no longer available

52 52 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Dynamic Routing Protocols  Components of a routing protocol Algorithm In the case of a routing protocol algorithms are used for facilitating routing information and best path determination Routing protocol messages These are messages for discovering neighbors and exchange of routing information

53 53 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Dynamic Routing Protocols  Advantages of static routing -It can backup multiple interfaces/networks on a router -Easy to configure -No extra resources are needed -More secure  Disadvantages of static routing -Network changes require manual reconfiguration -Does not scale well in large topologies

54 54 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Classifying Routing Protocols  Dynamic routing protocols are grouped according to characteristics. Examples include: -RIP -IGRP -EIGRP -OSPF -IS-IS -BGP  Autonomous System is a group of routers under the control of a single authority.

55 55 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Classifying Routing Protocols  Types of routing protocols: -Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) -Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP)

56 56 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Classifying Routing Protocols  Interior Gateway Routing Protocols (IGP) -Used for routing inside an autonomous system & used to route within the individual networks themselves. -Examples: RIP, EIGRP, OSPF  Exterior Routing Protocols (EGP) -Used for routing between autonomous systems -Example: BGPv4

57 57 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Classifying Routing Protocols  IGP: Comparison of Distance Vector & Link State Routing Protocols Distance vector –routes are advertised as vectors of distance & direction. –incomplete view of network topology. –Generally, periodic updates. Link state –complete view of network topology is created. –updates are not periodic.

58 58 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Classifying Routing Protocols Distance-vector algorithms (Bellman- Ford algorithms) แต่ละ router ส่งข้อมูล ทั้งหมดหรือบางส่วนของ routing table ของ ตัวเองแต่ส่งให้เฉพาะ router ที่อยู่ติดกัน จุดสำคัญ link-state algorithms ส่ง small update ไปทุก ๆ ที่ขณะที่ distance-vector algorithms ส่ง large update ไปเฉพาะ router ที่อยู่ติดกัน Distance-vector algorithms จะ ทราบข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับ router ที่อยู่ติดกันเท่านั้น

59 59 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Classifying Routing Protocols Link-state algorithms (shortest path first algorithms) จะส่ง routing information ถึงทุก node ใน internetwork แต่ละ router ส่งบางส่วน ของ routing table ที่อธิบายสถานะของการ เชื่อมโยงของตัวเอง ใน link-state algorithms แต่ละ router สร้างภาพของเครือข่ายทั้งหมดใน routing tables

60 60 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Classifying Routing Protocols

61 61 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Classifying Routing Protocols  Classful routing protocols Do NOT send subnet mask in routing updates  Classless routing protocols Do send subnet mask in routing updates.

62 62 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Classifying Routing Protocols  Convergence is defined as when all routers’ routing tables are at a state of consistency

63 63 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocols Metrics  Metric A value used by a routing protocol to determine which routes are better than others.

64 64 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocols Metrics  Metrics used in IP routing protocols -Bandwidth -Cost -Delay -Hop count -Load -Reliability

65 65 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocols Metrics  The Metric Field in the Routing Table  Metric used for each routing protocol -RIP - hop count -IGRP & EIGRP - Bandwidth (used by default), Delay (used by default), Load, Reliability -IS-IS & OSPF – Cost, Bandwidth (Cisco’s implementation)

66 66 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Routing Protocols Metrics  Load balancing This is the ability of a router to distribute packets among multiple same cost paths

67 67 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Administrative Distance of a Route  Purpose of a metric It’s a calculated value used to determine the best path to a destination  Purpose of Administrative Distance It’s a numeric value that specifies the preference of a particular route

68 68 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Administrative Distance of a Route  Identifying the Administrative Distance (AD) in a routing table It is the first number in the brackets in the routing table

69 69 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Administrative Distance of a Route  Dynamic Routing Protocols

70 70 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Administrative Distance of a Route  Directly connected routes Have a default AD of 0  Static Routes Administrative distance of a static route has a default value of 1

71 71 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Administrative Distance of a Route  Directly connected routes -Immediately appear in the routing table as soon as the interface is configured

72 72 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Summary  Dynamic routing protocols fulfill the following functions -Dynamically share information between routers -Automatically update routing table when topology changes -Determine best path to a destination  Routing protocols are grouped as either -Interior gateway protocols (IGP)Or -Exterior gateway protocols(EGP)  Types of IGPs include -Classless routing protocols - these protocols include subnet mask in routing updates -Classful routing protocols - these protocols do not include subnet mask in routing update

73 73 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Summary  Metrics are used by dynamic routing protocols to calculate the best path to a destination.  Administrative distance is an integer value that is used to indicate a router’s “trustworthiness”  Components of a routing table include: -Route source -Administrative distance -Metric

74 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 74 Basic RIP Configuration (Lab 7.5.1) หลักสูตรผู้เชี่ยวชาญระบบโครงข่ายการศึกษาขั้น พื้นฐาน (OBEC Network)

75 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 75 Basic EIGRP Configuration (Lab 9.6.1) หลักสูตรผู้เชี่ยวชาญระบบโครงข่ายการศึกษาขั้น พื้นฐาน (OBEC Network)

76 76 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public


ดาวน์โหลด ppt © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 1 Routing Protocol and Concepts หลักสูตรผู้เชี่ยวชาญระบบโครงข่ายการศึกษาขั้น พื้นฐาน (OBEC.

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