1Energy, environment, justice Chris GreacenSheila BijoorPalang Thai
2Outline Problems Solutions? Global warming (only part of the “energy-environment crisis”)CausesImpactsSolutions?Saving energyRenewable energy
3Getting hotter:1000 years of global temperature the past decade was the warmest in 1,000 years, the 1990s are the warmest decade ever, and 1998 set the benchmark for the warmest year yet.
4Global temperature dramatically increases, especially during the last decade and scientists predicts the future surface temperature to be …ช่วงที่มีการสังเกตการณ์Projections inthe next 100 yearsDuring the last 100 yearsในรอบ 1,000 ปีที่ผ่านมาSource: IPCC, See
19Electricity use in Thailand in 2003 Source: Figure 19, Statistical Report Fiscal Year 2003 Power Forecast and Statistics Analysis Department System Control and Operation Division. Report No. SOD-FSSR
29Economic impacts -- especially from extreme weather “2005 Atlantic hurricane season has clearly been the most active season on record”
30Impacts: in parts of the world -- less rain, less crops
31ฤ massive influx of fresh water could alter the ocean's salt content and eventually impact the great ocean circulatory systems that regulate the planet's climate.
32Source: BBC UK, 2005; UNEP, 2006 See http://www. grida
33Climate change used to justify… BIG DAMS Ecological/social damage from floodingDecimated fish stocksEspecially impacts rural politically disempowered(Often does cause climate change)
34NUCLEAR Expensive Waste deadly for at least 250,000 years We can’t figure out how to dispose of wasteUnavoidable weapons linkages
35Global warming is only a tiny part of the energy/ecology/society story… One large shopping mall (average consumption): 10 MegawattPak Mun Dam (average production): 40 MegawattFish stocks decimated10 years of protest, villagersCommunities forcefully relocated
36Are there alternatives? … yes… Save energyUse clean (renewable) energy
37(Real) Buddhist values Moderation / simplicityEmphasis on “being” rather than “having”
39Saving electricity is cheaper than generating it Demand Side Management (saving electricity)Source: The World Bank (1993)
40household and daily activities GHGs emissions fromhousehold and daily activitiesที่มา : Australian Greenhouse Office (2003) See
41ปลูกสร้างอาคารให้สอดคล้องกับทิศการรับความร้อน ปลูกต้นไม้ให้ความร่มรื่น และช่วยลดอุณหภูมิ Southที่มา : Australian Greenhouse Office (2003)
42California energy conservation programs save $1000 per family/year Estimate some of the causes of this 2%/year gain. Each year, the cost of conservation programs, public interest R&D, and standards adds ~1% to electric bills, but cuts 1/2% off the bill. So an investment of $1 in say 1990 saves $.50 per year for 10 to 20 years.Calif annual electric bill in 2004 ~ $32 B, so we’ve avoided ~$16 B of bills, but net saving is only ~$12B/year, i.e. $1000/family/yr.
43Source: Presentation by Ministry of Energy at Energy Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003
44Very little electricity comes from renewables… 0.6% from Renewable EnergySource: EGAT PDP 2003
46Biogas from Pig Farms Reduces air and water pollution Produces fertilizerProduces electricityBiogas from Pig Farms
47Biogas from Pig Farms5000 pigs $31 / day elec.
48Korat Waste to Energy - biogas Uses waste water from cassava to make methaneProduces gas for all factory heat (30 MW thermal) + 3 MW of electricityEarns high market returnsDeveloper estimates 300 MW from waste water MW from wet cake
49Korat Waste to Energy - biogas 3 x 1 MW Jenbacher gas generators
50Micro-hydroelectricity This diagram shows the main components of stand-alone micro-hydroelectric systems of the type used in remote villages in Thailand. A small weir diverts water to a power canal or pipe. After traveling horizontally some distance, the water enters a forebay where sediment settles, and then falls down a steep, high pressure penstock pipe to drive a turbine located in the powerhouse. Water returns to the river via the tailrace. Because these projects are quite small and typically have little or no reservoir, environmental impact is much less than for conventional hydroelectric projects.Source: Inversin, A. R. (1986). Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook.