14Ballast Water Discharge Annual Discharge in US Waters79,000,000 Metric Tons(21,000,000,000 gallons)Global Transfer10,000,000,000 metric tons annuallyNiimi 200458,000,000 gallons per dayOver 2,400,000 gallons per hour
15Rate of Coastal Invasions This graph shows the rate of invasions of marine invertebrates andseaweeds based upon the number of new invasions occurring in the U.S.coastal zone from 1790 to For example, there were 150 newinvasions from 1970–1999. The total number of invasions plotted on thisgraph is 374 species.
16The discovery that marine species could be translocated in the ballast water of modern steel ships was first reported by Ostenfeld (1908)
17Organisms in Ballast Water BacteriaVirusesPhytoplanktonZooplanktonSeaweedFishBenthic Organisms
33Zebra Mussels in the Great Lakes Name: Dreissena polymorpha Origin: Caspian Sea, via canals into the Baltic Sea, by ship to the Great Lakes Introduced: ca. 1986Life cycle: rapid growth, sustain cold winters, extreme number of eggs, active filter feeders (change plankton bio- mass and composition), settle on both hard and soft bottomEffects: decreased fish stocks, higher water clarity so that bottoms are recolonized by rooted plants, immense clogging of pipes, water inlets, power plant pipes, fouling of boat hulls and even engines
37The green shore crab (Carcinus maenas), origin: Europe; spreads from San Francisco Bay northwards since 1990; reduces commercial dangeon crabs; economic damage $44 million
38The parasitic barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei from the Gulf of Mexico and South Florida infects various crabs in the Chesapeake Bay
39Mnemiopsis leidyiThe native habitat of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is in temperate to subtropical estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North and South America. In the early 1980s, it was accidentally introduced to the Black Sea, where it flourished and expanded into the Azov, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Caspian Seas.The anchovy catch plummeted from 500,000 tons in the early 1980s to 100,000 tons in Although that has since rebounded to about 300,000 tons, catches of a second food fish, the Azov Sea kilka, have fallen to zero.
49Current IMO Regulations Adopted in 1997Minimize uptake of harmful aquatic organisms, pathogens and sedimentsRemove ballast sediment on a timely basisAvoid unnecessary discharge of ballast waterBallast water exchange
51Ballast Water Exchange “Where Practicable” should exchange 200 nautical miles offshore“Whenever possible” exchange at least 200 nautical miles offshoreOr at least 50 nautical miles offshore
52New IMO Convention Adopted February 2004 Must be ratified by 30 states (countries)As of May countries have ratifiedSpain and BrazilEstablishes Ballast Water Performance StandardRequires Exchange or TreatmentEarliest Implementation 2009