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Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition Chapter 10 Information and Decision Support Systems.

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งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition Chapter 10 Information and Decision Support Systems."— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:

1 Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition Chapter 10 Information and Decision Support Systems

2 2Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Principles and Learning Objectives Good decision-making and problem-solving skills are the key to developing effective information and decision support systems –Define the stages of decision making –Discuss the importance of implementation and monitoring in problem solving

3 3Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) The management information system (MIS) must provide the right information to the right person in the right format at the right time –Explain the uses of MISs and describe their inputs and outputs –Discuss information systems in the functional areas of business organizations

4 4Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) Decision support systems (DSSs) are used when the problems are unstructured –List and discuss important characteristics of DSSs that give them the potential to be effective management support tools –Identify and describe the basic components of a DSS

5 5Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) Specialized support systems, such as group support systems (GSSs) and executive support systems (ESSs), use the overall approach of a DSS in situations such as group and executive decision making –State the goals of a GSS and identify the characteristics that distinguish it from a DSS –Identify the fundamental uses of an ESS and list the characteristics of such a system

6 6Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Why Learn About Information and Decision Support Systems? True potential of ISs is to help employees make more informed business decisions These systems can cut costs, increase profits, uncover new opportunities Examples –Transportation coordinator can find least expensive way to ship products –Loan manager can determine creditworthiness –Store managers can better maintain inventory

7 7Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Decision Making and Problem Solving Every organization needs effective decision making In most cases, strategic planning and overall goals of the organization set the course for decision making Information systems can assist with strategic planning and problem solving

8 8Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving Decision-making phase: first part of problem- solving process –Intelligence stage: potential problems or opportunities are identified and defined –Design stage: alternative solutions to the problem are developed –Choice stage: requires selecting a course of action

9 9Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving (continued) Figure 10.1: How Decision Making Relates to Problem Solving

10 10Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving (continued) Problem solving: goes beyond decision making to include implementation and monitoring stages Implementation stage: a solution is put into effect Monitoring stage: decision makers evaluate the implementation

11 11Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Programmed Versus Nonprogrammed Decisions Programmed decision –Decision made using a rule, procedure, or quantitative method –Easy to computerize using traditional information systems Nonprogrammed decision –Decision that deals with unusual or exceptional situations –Not easily quantifiable

12 12Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Optimization, Satisficing, and Heuristic Approaches Optimization model: find the best solution, usually the one that will best help the organization meet its goals Satisficing model: find a good—but not necessarily the best—problem solution Heuristics: commonly accepted guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution – การใช้วิธีลองผิดลองถูกและจำผลการทำงานครั้งก่อนๆใน การแก้ปัญหา – การใช้วิธีการที่เป็นที่ยอมรับว่าสามารถใช้แก้ปัญหาได้

13 13Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Optimization, Satisficing, and Heuristic Approaches (continued) Figure 10.2: Optimization Software

14 14Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Sense and Respond Sense and Respond (SaR) approach –Determining problems or opportunities (sense) –Developing systems to solve the problems or take advantage of the opportunities (respond) One way to implement SaR is through management information and decision support systems

15 15Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition An Overview of Management Information Systems Management information system (MIS) –Integrated collection of people, procedures, databases, and devices –Provides managers and decision makers with information to help achieve organizational goals –Can give the organization a competitive advantage –Providing the right information to the right people in the right format and at the right time

16 16Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Management Information Systems in Perspective Management information system (MIS) (continued) –Provides managers with information that supports effective decision making and provides feedback on daily operations Use of MISs spans all levels of management

17 17Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Management Information Systems in Perspective (continued) Figure 10.3: Sources of Managerial Information

18 18Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Inputs to a Management Information System Internal data sources –TPSs and ERP systems and related databases –Data warehouses and data marts –Specific functional areas throughout the firm External data sources –Customers, suppliers, competitors, and stockholders whose data is not already captured by the TPS –Internet –Extranets

19 19Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Outputs of a Management Information System Figure 10.4: An Executive Dashboard

20 20Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Outputs of a Management Information System (continued) Scheduled report: produced periodically, or on schedule, such as daily, weekly, or monthly –Key-indicator report: summary of previous day’s critical activities( กิจกรรมที่ต้องใช้ความระมัดระวัง มักถูกใช้โดย manager, executive) Demand report: developed to give certain information at someone’s request เช่น FedEx ให้ลูกค้า track ดูเส้นทางการ ขนส่งสินค้าได้, ฝ่ายบริหารขอดูชั่วโมงการทำงานของลูกจ้าง เป็น ต้น Exception report: automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action ( เพราะจะเป็น รายงานที่ถูกสร้างขึ้นมาเมื่อปัญหานั้นต้องได้รับการแก้ไขหรือถูก แก้ไขแล้ว ) Drill-down reports: provide increasingly detailed data about a situation

21 21Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Outputs of a Management Information System (continued) Figure 10.5: Reports Generated by an MIS

22 22Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Outputs of a Management Information System (continued) Table 10.1: Guidelines for Developing MIS Reports 1. สร้างรายงานให้ตรงกับ ความต้องการ 2. สร้างเฉพาะรายงานที่ใช้ ประโยชน์ได้เท่านั้น 3. ใส่ใจกับเนื้อหา รายละเอียด ในรายงาน 4. ใช้ Exception report ใน การจัดการต่างๆ 5. ตั้งค่าต่างๆ (parameter) ด้วยความระมัดระวัง 6. ทำรายงานในเวลาที่ เหมาะสมใช้งาน 7. ทบทวนรายงานอย่าง น้อยปีละ 1 ครั้ง

23 23Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Characteristics of a Management Information System Provide reports with fixed and standard formats Produce hard-copy and soft-copy reports Use internal data stored in computer system Allow users to develop custom reports Require user requests for reports developed by systems personnel

24 24Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Functional Aspects of the MIS Most organizations are structured along functional lines or areas MIS can be divided along functional lines to produce reports tailored to individual functions

25 25Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Functional Aspects of the MIS (continued) Figure 10.6: An Organization’s MIS

26 26Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Financial Management Information Systems Financial MIS: provides financial information to executives and others Some financial MIS subsystems and outputs –Profit/loss and cost systems: profit and revenue centers –Auditing: internal and external –Uses and management of funds

27 27Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Financial Management Information Systems (continued) Figure 10.7: Overview of a Financial MIS

28 28Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Manufacturing MIS Manufacturing MIS subsystems and outputs monitor and control the flow of materials, products, and services through the organization Design and engineering: CAD systems –CAD (computer aided design) การใช้คอมพิวเตอร์ช่วยออกแบบ Master production scheduling and inventory control –Methods: EOQ ( economic order quantity) Quantity that should be reordered to minimize total inventory costs –Methods: MRP ( material requirement planning) การวางแผนความต้องการวัตถุดิบเพื่อใช้ในการผลิตสินค้า –Methods: JIT (just-in-time) Inventory and materials are delivered just before they are used in manufacturing a product

29 Manufacturing MIS Process control –Techniques: CAM (computer-assisted manufacturing) System that directly controls manufacturing equipment –Techniques: CIM (computer-integrated manufacturing) Using computer to link the components of the production process into an effective system –Techniques: FMS (flexible manufacturing system) Approach that allow manufacturing facilities to rapidly and efficiently change from making one product to making another Quality control and testing – เป็นกระบวนการการควบคุมคุณภาพและการทดสอบ ทำเพื่อวัดผลว่า สินค้า / บริการที่ผลิตขึ้นมา ตรงกับความต้องการของลูกค้ามากน้อย เพียงใด รวมถึงเป็นการวัดคุณภาพของสินค้าและบริการนั้นๆ ว่าสูงมาก น้อยเพียงใด

30 30Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Manufacturing Management Information Systems (continued) Figure 10.8: Overview of a Manufacturing MIS

31 31Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Marketing Management Information Systems Marketing MIS: supports managerial activities in product development, distribution, pricing decisions, and promotional effectiveness Subsystems –Marketing research การวิจัยตลาด สำรวจความพึงพอใจ ลูกค้า เช่น สำรวจ สัมภาษณ์ แบบสอบถาม เป็นต้น –Product development เช่น พัฒนากระบวนการผลิต พัฒนาฝีมือแรงงาน ใช้วัตถุดิบที่มีคุณภาพ เป็นต้น –Promotion and advertising การส่งเสริมการขายและ โฆษณา –Product pricing การตั้งราคาขายปลีก - ส่ง - ส่วนลดต่างๆ –Sales analysis การวิเคราะห์การขายโดยดูจากสินค้า ผู้ขาย ลูกค้า เป็นต้น

32 32Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Marketing Management Information Systems (continued) Figure 10.9: Overview of a Marketing MIS

33 33Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Marketing Management Information Systems (continued) Figure 10.10: Reports Generated to Help Marketing Managers Make Good Decisions

34 34Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Human Resource Management Information Systems Human resource MIS: concerned with activities related to employees and potential employees Subsystems –Human resource planning การวางแผนคาดคะเนลูกจ้าง ในอนาคต –Personnel selection and recruiting การเลือกและรับ สมัครงาน –Training and skills inventory การฝึกอบรมและการ ประเมินต่างๆ –Scheduling and job placement วางแผนการทำงาน วาง คนถูกงาน –Wage and salary administration การคิดค่าจ้างรายวัน / รายเดือน –Outplacement การออกจากงาน

35 35Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Human Resource Management Information Systems (continued) Figure 10.11: Overview of a Human Resource MIS

36 36Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Other Management Information Systems Accounting MIS: provides aggregate information on accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and many other applications Geographic information system (GIS): capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographic information

37 37Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition An Overview of Decision Support Systems DSS: organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to help make decisions that solve problems Focus of a DSS is on decision-making effectiveness regarding unstructured or semistructured business problems Used by managers at all levels

38 38Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Characteristics of a Decision Support System Provide rapid access to information Handle large amounts of data from different sources Provide report and presentation flexibility Offer both textual and graphical orientation Support drill-down analysis

39 39Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Characteristics of a Decision Support System (continued) Perform complex, sophisticated analysis and comparisons using advanced software packages Support optimization, satisficing, and heuristic approaches What-if analysis: making hypothetical changes to problem data and observing impact on results Goal-seeking analysis: determining problem data required for a given result Simulation: ability of the DSS to duplicate features of a real system

40 40Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Characteristics of a Decision Support System (continued) Figure 10.13: With a spreadsheet program, a manager can enter a goal, and the spreadsheet will determine the input needed to achieve the goal.

41 41Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Capabilities of a Decision Support System Support problem-solving phases Support different decision frequencies –Ad hoc DSS เฉพาะกิจ –Institutional DSS เกิดหลายๆครั้ง เป็นประจำ Support different problem structures –Highly structured problems –Semistructured or unstructured problems Support various decision-making levels

42 42Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Capabilities of a Decision Support System (continued) Figure 10.14: Decision-Making Level

43 43Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition A Comparison of DSS and MIS Table 10.3: Comparison of DSSs and MISs

44 44Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition A Comparison of DSS and MIS (continued) Table 10.3: Comparison of DSSs and MISs (continued)

45 45Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Components of a Decision Support System Database Model base Dialogue manager: user interface that allows decision makers to: –Easily access and manipulate the DSS –Use common business terms and phrases Access to the Internet, networks, and other computer-based systems

46 46Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Components of a Decision Support System (continued) Figure 10.15: Conceptual Model of a DSS

47 47Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition The Database Database management system –Allows managers and decision makers to perform qualitative analysis on data stored in company’s databases, data warehouses, and data marts –Can also be used to connect to external databases Data-driven DSS: primarily performs qualitative analysis based on the company’s databases

48 48Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition The Model Base Model base: provides decision makers with access to a variety of models and assists them in decision making –Allows them to perform quantitative analysis on both internal and external data Model-driven DSS: primarily performs mathematical or quantitative analysis Model management software (MMS): software that coordinates the use of models in a DSS 1.Finance=Excel, 2. Statistic=SPSS, 3.Graphical= Power point,4. Project management=Project

49 49Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition The User Interface or Dialogue Manager Allows users to interact with the DSS to obtain information Assists with all aspects of communications between user and hardware and software that constitute the DSS

50 50Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Group Support Systems Group support system (GSS) –Consists of most elements in a DSS, plus software to provide effective support in group decision making –Also called group decision support system or computerized collaborative work system

51 51Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Group Support Systems (continued) Figure 10.16: Configuration of a GSS

52 52Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Characteristics of a GSS That Enhance Decision Making Special design Ease of use Flexibility Decision-making support –Delphi approach รวบรวมความคิดจากหลากหลายที่ –Brainstorming รวบรวมความคิดแบบระดมความคิดเห็น –Group consensus approach ความคิดเห็นเป็นเอกฉันท์ ของกลุ่ม –Nominal group technique เช่น การลงคะแนนเสียง การ โหวต

53 53Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Characteristics of a GSS That Enhance Decision Making (continued) Anonymous input เช่น การประเมินการเรียนการสอน Reduction of negative group behavior เช่น พวกมาก ลากไป Parallel communication เช่น การระดมความคิดเห็น พร้อมกับใส่ข้อมูลลงไปในคอมฯ เพื่อสรุปผลหรือได้ผล เร็วขึ้น Automated record keeping สามารถเก็บข้อมูล เก็บผล ไว้ดูภายหลัง

54 54Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition GSS Software Often called groupware or workgroup software Helps with joint work group scheduling, communication, and management – ,instant messing,videoconference,group schedule,project management,document share etc. Examples –Virtual Office from Groove Networks –Lotus Notes –Office Communicator –IBM’s Workplace –Microsoft’s NetMeeting

55 55Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition GSS Software (continued) Examples of groupware products available on the Web –WebEx, Genesys Meeting Center, GoToMeeting Corporate GSS software incorporated into existing software packages

56 56Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition GSS Alternatives Decision room –Decision makers are located in the same building or geographic area –Decision makers are occasional users of the GSS approach Local area decision network –Group members are located in the same building or geographic area –Group decision making is frequent

57 57Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition GSS Alternatives (continued) Figure 10.18: The GSS Decision Room

58 58Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition GSS Alternatives (continued) Teleconferencing –Decision frequency is low –Location of group members is distant Wide area decision network –Decision frequency is high –Location of group members is distant

59 59Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Executive Support Systems Executive support system (ESS): –Specialized DSS –Includes hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives –Also called an executive information system (EIS)

60 60Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Executive Support Systems (continued) Figure 10.19: The Layers of Executive Decision Making

61 61Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Executive Support Systems in Perspective Tailored to individual executives Easy to use Drill-down capabilities Support need for external data เช่น ข้อมูลจากคู่แข่ง นโยบายรัฐบาล สถานการณ์การเมือง เป็นต้น

62 62Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Executive Support Systems in Perspective (continued) Can help with situations that have a high degree of uncertainty Future-oriented Linked to value-added business processes

63 63Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Capabilities of Executive Support Systems Support for defining overall vision สนับสนุนการกำหนด วิสัยทัศน์ Support for strategic planning สนับสนุนการวางแผน ยุทธศาสตร์ –Determining long-term objectives through analysis of current organization and prediction of future trends Support for strategic organizing and staffing สนับสนุน การดำเนินยุทธศาสตร์ และคณะทำงาน Support for strategic control สนับสนุนการควบคุม ยุทธศาสตร์ Support for crisis management สนับสนุนการจัดการ เหตุการณ์ฉุกเฉิน เช่น น้ำท่วม แผ่นดินไหว พายุ ฯลฯ

64 64Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Summary Decision-making phase: includes intelligence, design, and choice stages Problem-solving process: includes decision-making phase, and implementation and monitoring stages Management information system (MIS): provides managers with information that supports effective decision making and provides feedback on daily operations Financial MIS: provides financial information to executives and others

65 65Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Summary (continued) Manufacturing MIS: monitors and controls flow of materials, products, and services through the organization Marketing MIS: supports managerial activities in product development, distribution, pricing decisions, and promotional effectiveness Human resource MIS: concerned with activities related to employees and potential employees

66 66Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Summary (continued) Accounting MIS: provides aggregate information on accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and other applications Geographic information system (GIS): capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographic information DSS: organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to help make decisions that solve problems

67 67Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Summary (continued) Group support system (GSS): consists of most elements in a DSS, plus software to provide effective support in group decision making Executive support system (ESS): specialized DSS; includes all hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives


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