Health determinants - Risk factors - Health promoting factors
Factors That Increase the Relative Risk for Breast Cancer in Woman Relative RiskFactor Relative Risk > 4.0 Age (65+ vs.<65 years, although risk increases across all ages until age 80) Certain inherited genetic mutations for breast cancer (BRCA 1 and/or BRCA 2) Two or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer diagnosed at an early age Personal history of breast cancer Postmenopausal of breast density Relative Risk 2.1-4.0 One first-degree relative with breast cancer Biopsy-confirmed atypical hyperplasia High-dose radiation to chest High bone density (postmenopausal)
Relative RiskFactor Relative Risk 1.1-2.0 Reproductive factors Late age at first full-term pregnancy (>30 years) Early menarche (<12 years) Late menopause (>55 years) No full-term pregnancies Never breast fed a child Factors that affect circulating hormones Recent oral contraceptive use Recent and long term use of hormone replacement therapy Obesity (postmenopausal) Other factors Personal History of cancer of endometrium, ovary or colon Alcohol consumption Tall High socioeconomic status Jewish heritage Source:A.Ghafoor,A.Samuels,A.Jemal.Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2003-2004. American Cancer Society,pg 3, Accessed online on 4/17/05 at www.cancer.org
1.Exercise for at least 30 minutes a day, preferably 4-5 hours a week (enough to break a sweat). 2.Maintain a normal weight, especially if you are post- menopausal. 3.Have your children before 35 if you can. 4.Breast-feed your children. 5.Avoid unnecessary X-rays. 6.Drink alcohol only in moderation and make sure you take folic acid when you do drink. 7.Avoid taking hormones (HT, Fertility drugs) unless necessary. 8.Have a doctor evaluate any breast symptoms or changes that develop. 9.Have a mammogram when appropriate. 10.Participate in studies to find the cause and prevention of breast cancer.