8 Health determinants- Risk factors- Health promoting factors
9 Factors That Increase the Relative Risk for Breast Cancer in Woman Age (65+ vs.<65 years, although risk increases across all ages until age 80)Certain inherited genetic mutations for breast cancer (BRCA 1 and/or BRCA 2)Two or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer diagnosed at an early agePersonal history of breast cancerPostmenopausal of breast densityRelative RiskOne first-degree relative with breast cancerBiopsy-confirmed atypical hyperplasiaHigh-dose radiation to chestHigh bone density (postmenopausal)
10 Relative Risk Factor Relative Risk 1.1-2.0 Reproductive factors Late age at first full-term pregnancy (>30 years)Early menarche (<12 years)Late menopause (>55 years)No full-term pregnanciesNever breast fed a childFactors that affectcirculating hormonesRecent oral contraceptive useRecent and long term use of hormone replacement therapyObesity (postmenopausal)Other factorsPersonal History of cancer of endometrium, ovary or colonAlcohol consumptionTallHigh socioeconomic statusJewish heritageSource:A.Ghafoor,A.Samuels,A.Jemal.Breast Cancer Facts and Figures American Cancer Society,pg 3, Accessed online on 4/17/05 at
15 What can most women do to reduce her risk? Exercise for at least 30 minutes a day, preferably 4-5 hours a week (enough to break a sweat).Maintain a normal weight, especially if you are post-menopausal.Have your children before 35 if you can.Breast-feed your children.Avoid unnecessary X-rays.Drink alcohol only in moderation and make sure you take folic acid when you do drink.Avoid taking hormones (HT, Fertility drugs) unless necessary.Have a doctor evaluate any breast symptoms or changes that develop.Have a mammogram when appropriate.Participate in studies to find the cause and prevention of breast cancer.