6ทรัพยากร (Resource) มีความหมายในเชิง “กลไก” (Instrumental) “Something that lies ready for use or that can be drawn upon for aid or to take care of a need” (Webster’s New World Dictionary 1974)1 thing resorted to for support. 2 means of achieving something 3 sources of economic wealth (Collins)1 A resource is something useful, such as coal, oil, or land, that a country has and that it can use to increase its wealth. 2 someone’s resource is their ability to solve problem and difficulties quickly, efficiently, and with initiative.Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
7Human ResourcesHuman resources refer to ‘human beings whose productive contributions also satisfy those wants.’It is the same individuals who are both the agents of production and those for whose welfare and happiness all production takes place.Economists => human resources as ‘productive roles’.Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
8Human Capital ‘productive capabilities of human beings’ ‘abilities and know-how of men and women that have been acquired at some cost and that can command a price in the labor market.’Its useful for purpose of deciding ‘how much and what kinds of such productive capabilities individuals and societies ought to develop.’Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
9Human capital VS. Physical Capital Similaritiesการได้มาซึ่งทุนทั้ง 2 ประเภทนี้ “มีค่าใช้จ่าย”การลงทุนเพื่อให้ได้มาซึ่งทุนทั้ง 2 ประเภทนี้ เพื่อวัตถุประสงค์อื่นๆ (ไม่จบสิ้นลงในตัวมันเอง)การลงทุนเพื่อให้ได้มาซึ่งทุนทั้ง 2 ประเภทนี้ มักจะเป็นไปเพื่อตอบสนองความต้องการที่จะเพิ่มผลิตภาพ (the greater return).ความคุ้มค่าของการลงทุนเพื่อให้ได้มาซึ่งทุนทั้ง 2 ประเภทนี้ อาจประเมินได้หลายแง่มุมทั้งในระดับบุคคล องค์กร และสังคม.Differenceทุนมนุษย์มักเป็น “นามธรรม” (Tacit)ไม่มีใครสามารถเป็นเจ้าของทุนมนุษย์ได้ นอกจากตัวบุคคลที่ทุนนั้นแฝงฝังอยู่ข้างในทุนมนุษย์จะสำแดงความสามารถที่มีผลิตภาพออกมาหรือไม่ ย่อมขึ้นอยู่กับเจตจำนงของตัวบุคคลที่ทุนนั้นแฝงฝังอยู่ข้างในDr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
11What is Management?Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization’s human, financial, material, and other resources to increase its effectivenessManagers are in a good position to improve their managerial abilities by understanding organizational behavior. Managers at all levels confront the problem of understanding the behavior of their subordinates and responding appropriately. A manager who understands how individual, group, and organizational characteristics affect and shape work attitudes and behavior can begin to experiment to see whether changing one or more of these characteristics might increase the effectiveness of the organization and the individuals and groups it consists of. Organizational effectiveness is the ability of an organization to achieve its goals.Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDASource: Koontz, Harold and Weihrich, Heinz (1988) Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
12Four Functions of Management PlanningDecide on organizational goalsand allocate and useresources toachieve those goalsOrganizingEstablish the rules andreporting relationships thatallow people toachieve organizational goalsControllingEvaluate how well theorganization is achieving goalsand take action tomaintain, improve, and correctperformanceLeadingEncourage and coordinateindividuals and groupsso that they worktoward organizational goalsOB and Planning: The study of OB reveals how decisions are made in organizations and how politics and conflict affect the planning process. It shows how group decision making and biases can affect planning.OB and Organizing: OB offers guidelines on how to organize employees to make the best use of their skills and capabilities.OB and Leading: The study of different leadership methods and of how to match leadership style to the characteristics of the organization and all its components is a major concern of OB.OB and Controlling: The theories and concepts of organizational behavior allow managers to understand and accurately diagnose work situations in order to pinpoint where corrective action may be needed.Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDASource: Koontz, Harold and Weihrich, Heinz (1988) Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.7
13Development = การพัฒนา พัฒนา = พัฒนะ พัฒนะ คือ การทำให้เจริญ การทำความเจริญ การ เปลี่ยนแปลงไปในทางที่เจริญขึ้น การคลี่คลายไปในทางที่ดีขึ้น (พจนานุกรมฉบับราชบัณฑิตยสถาน 2525)Development = growing gradually; become or make more mature, advanced or organized. (Oxford dictionary)Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
19IndividualismIndividualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so independence and self-reliance while opposing most external interference upon one's own interests, whether by society, or any other group or institution.A separate entityตัวกูของกู อัฐใครอัฐมัน ตัวใครตัวมัน“คนแต่ละคนไม่เหมือนกัน”“เสรีชน” “วิญญาณเสรี”Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
20CollectivismThe antipode of individualism is collectivism, which subordinates the individual to the group - be it the 'community,' the tribe, the race, the proletariat, etc. A person's moral worth is judged by how much he sacrifices himself to the group.Commonality, familial spirit, Community“รวมกันเราอยู่ แยกหมู่เราตาย”“แสวงจุดร่วม สงวนจุดต่าง”“สันติภาพ เสมอภาค ภราดรภาพ”“โลกทั้งผองพี่น้องกัน”Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
23Human development concept ‘Paradigm shift’ Plan 1-7Plan 8 =>Economic GrowthAffluent societyPeople-centered, Healthy communityLearning SocietyOpulence approach(Rostow, Galbraith)Capability approach(Amartya Sen, Ul Haq)Human as means (Manpower, Resource)Human as ends(Quality of life)Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
24Drivers Capital Driven Wealth Creation Productivity Driven TalentWealthInvestmentWealthSkills/KnowledgeEmploymentProductivityDriversPhysical CapitalFinancial CapitalHuman CapitalSocial CapitalKey Success FactorsEconomies of ScaleEconomies of ScopeSpeedSkillsKnowledgeInnovationDr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
26Management: มุมมองเชิงจารีต Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization’s human, financial, material, and other resources to increase its effectivenessManagers are in a good position to improve their managerial abilities by understanding organizational behavior. Managers at all levels confront the problem of understanding the behavior of their subordinates and responding appropriately. A manager who understands how individual, group, and organizational characteristics affect and shape work attitudes and behavior can begin to experiment to see whether changing one or more of these characteristics might increase the effectiveness of the organization and the individuals and groups it consists of. Organizational effectiveness is the ability of an organization to achieve its goals.Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDASource: Koontz, Harold and Weihrich, Heinz (1988) Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
27MANAGEMENT: An Open System and Its Subsystems (Environment)TransformationProcessRaw MaterialsPeopleInformationresourcesFinancialProductsandServicesInputOutputProduction,Maintenance,Adaptation,ManagementBoundarySpanningBoundarySpanningSubsystemsDr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
28More specifically, management is responsible for… the primary activities of the firm; those being inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service.Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
29Management is also responsible for the support activities of infrastructure (accounting, finance, strategic planning), human resource management (recruiting, training and development, compensation management), technology development (product and process improvement), and procurement (material acquisition).Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
31Management is ‘a process’ Management is a process which seeks to create synergy with organisations and is often defined in terms of planning, organising, co-ordinating and controlling of resources.It is a process that is engaged in, not only by people called managers, but by most professionals in a diverse range of areas, including education, engineering, medicine and the arts.Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
32Structure of Organization ‘Management is everywhere’ Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
33ขึ้นอยู่กับ “วิธีคิด”!!! (Ways of Thinking) HOW TO MANAGE PEOPLE?ขึ้นอยู่กับ “วิธีคิด”!!!(Ways of Thinking)Dr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
35A Short History of Management F.W. Taylor and Scientific ManagementMary Parker FollettHawthorne StudiesTheory X and YModern agePost-modern?The systematic study of OB began in the closing decades of the nineteenth century after the industrial revolution.
37Evolution of Civilization “The Third Wave” Social Change, Paradigm Shift !!!Evolution of Civilization “The Third Wave”Information SocietyService EconomyKnowledge-based EconomyStoneAgeAgriculturalAgeIndustrialCapitalismPost-industrialCapitalismCreative EconomyInnovative EconomyPre18001957Time
41HRM ‘mapping’ of various meanings STRONGA distinctive approach to labor managementIStrategic interventions designed to elicit commitment and to develop resourceful humansIIStrategic interventions designed to secure full utilization of labor resourcesIntegrated with business strategySOFTHARDInternal integrationJust another term for ‘personnel’WEAKSource: Storey, John (1992) Management of Human Resources. Oxford, Blackwell.
45สรุป หัวใจสำคัญของ HRM/D Cost-effectiveness/ Labour productivityHuman Relations/ Organizational flexibilitySocial Legitimacy/ Corporate Social ResponsibilityDr. Sombat Kusumavalee, SHRD NIDA
464 Styles of HRM Management style in handling employee relations IndividualismHighSOPHISTICATED HUMAN RELATIONSCONSULTATIVECollectivism HighCollectivism LowTRADITIONALCONSTITUTIONALLowIndividualismSource: Storey, J. and Sisson, K. (1993) Managing Human Resources and Industrial relations. Buckingham, Open University Press.
47TRADITIONAL Labor is viewed as a factor of production. Employee subordination is assumed to be part of the ‘natural order’ of the employment relationship.There is often a fear of outside union interference.Unionization is opposed or unions kept at arm’s length.
48CONSTITUTIONALSomewhat similar to the traditionalists in basic value structures, especially for unskilled and semiskilled workers,But unions have been recognized for some time and accepted as inevitable.Employee relations policies centre on the need for stability, control and the institutionalization of conflict.Management prerogatives are defended through highly specific collective agreements, and careful attention is paid to the administration of agreement on the shopfloor.The importance of management control is emphasized with the aim of minimizing or neutralizing union constraints on both operational (line) and strategic (corporate) management.
49SOPHISTICATED HUMAN RELATIONS Employees (excluding short-term contract or subcontract labor) are viewed as the company’s most valuable resource.Firms often have above-average pay, and clear internal labor market structures with promotion ladders; periodic attitude surveys are used to harness employees’ views.Emphasize on flexible reward structures, employee appraisal systems linked to merit awards, internal grievance, disciplinary and consultative procedures and extensive networks and methods of communication. The aim is to inculcate employee loyalty, commitment and dependency.As a by-product these companies seek to make it unnecessary or unattractive for staff to unionize.
50CONSULTATIVESimilar to the sophisticated HR companies except that unions are recognized.Attempt to build ‘constructive’ relationships with the unions and incorporate them into the organizational fabric.Broad-ranging discussions are held and extensive information provided to the unions on a whole range of decisions and plans, including aspects of strategic management; the ‘right of last say’, though, rests with management.emphasize on techniques designed to enhance individual employee commitment to the firm and the need to accept change (share option schemes, profit-sharing, briefing or cascade info systems, joint working parties, quality or productivity circles/councils)
51Movement in management style in employee relations Resource①②Employee developmentSophisticated human relationsSophisticated consultativeModern PaternalisticINDIVIDUALISMPaternalisticPaternalismBargained constitutionalTraditionalCost minimizationNone (Unitary)AdversarialCo-operativeCommodityCOLLECTIVISM
52Personnel vs. HRM ‘Beliefs and assumption’ DimensionPersonnel and IRHRM1 contractCareful delineation of written contractsAim to go “beyond contract”2 RulesImportance of devising clear rules/mutuality‘Can do’ outlook: impatience with ‘rule’3 Guide to management actionProcedures/consistency control‘Business need’/ flexibility/ commitment4 Behavior referentNorms/custom and practiceValues/ mission5 Managerial task vis-à-vis laborMonitoringNurturing6 nature of relationsPluralistUnitarist7 conflictInstitutionalizedDe-emphasized8 standardizationHighLow
53Personnel vs. HRM ‘Strategic aspects’ DimensionPersonnel and IRHRM9 Key relationsLabor - ManagementBusiness - Customer10 InitiativesPiecemealIntegrated11 Corporate planMarginal toCentral to12 Speed of decisionSlowFast‘Strategic aspects’DimensionPersonnel and IRHRM13 Management roleTransactionalTransformational leadership14 Key managersPersonnel/ IR specialistsGeneral/business/line manager15 Prized management skillsNegotiationFacilitation
54Personnel vs. HRM ‘Key levers’ DimensionPersonnel and IRHRM16 Foci of attention for interventionsPersonnel proceduresWide-range cultural, structural and personnel strategies17 SelectionSeparate, marginal taskIntegrated, key task18 PayJob evaluation: multiple, fixed gradesPerformance-related: few if any grades19 ConditionsSeparately negotiatedHarmonization20 Labor - ManagementCollective bargaining contractsToward individual contracts21 Thrust of relations with stewardsRegularized through facilities and trainingMarginalized (with exception of some bargaining for change models)
55Personnel vs. HRM ‘Key levers’ DimensionPersonnel and IRHRM22 CommunicationRestricted flow/ indirectIncreased flow/ direct23 Job designDivision of laborTeamwork24 Conflict handlingReach temporary trucesManage climate and culture25 Training and developmentControlled access to coursesLearning companies