3 Motivational Instruction Keller (1983, 1984) proposed four conditions for motivation that must be met to have a motivated learnerGaining attentionEnhancing relevanceBuilding confidenceGenerating satisfactionLesson Plan3
4 Gaining Attention Stimulus change Attitude of inquiry Humor, storyCases (text, narrative, video)PicturesAttitude of inquiryMystery that involves students in solving problemsChanging pace, format of presentation, topicsLesson Plan
5 Enhancing RelevanceRelevance = What we perceive as instrumental in meeting our personal needsServe personal goalsAs means towards a goal (promise that students will eventually see the relevance)Opportunities (leadership, group work)Familiarity (students’ experience)Personal goals: instructors can assist this recognition by providing instructional goals, or help students define their own goalsSometimes goal is difficult to see (hemostasis mechanism for surgeon)… but a promise that relevance will come is okaySometimes what is being taught is not as important as how it is taught: students are interested in many interesting opportunitiesLink students’ experience with what is being taughtLesson Plan
6 Building Confidence Three strategies Clear expectations Provide success opportunities for studentsGood matchSelf-initiatedFocus on strategyProvide appropriate amount of assistanceClear expectations: sometimes, fear of failure is simply fear of the unknown. Sometimes final task is overwhelming… progressive disclosure is a good strategyCan be success or failure experience. Failure experiences can be constructive if 1. there is a good match between the challenge and learners’ capabilities, 2. learners’ performance is self-initiated, and 3. learner attributes failure to the poor use of strategies (ex. IV fluid line insertion)Lesson Plan
7 Generating Satisfaction Three types of satisfactionNatural consequences: opportunities to use newly acquired skills or knowledge in meaningful waysPositive consequences: verbal praise, incentives, symbolic awardsEquity: maintaining consistent standards and consequences for task achievementNatural consequences: ICD – help a patient with spontaneous pneumothoraxPositive consequences: Not all topics can lend themselves to immediate applications: other positive things can be useful: praise, incentives, awardsEquity: If you achieve the least in the class, but get the same praise or awards… it dim the satisfaction… the key is to set a realistic expectation at the outset.Lesson Plan
8 Questions & Comments Cherdsak Iramaneerat Cherdsak.firstname.lastname@example.org มีเรื่องอื่นใดที่อาจารย์อยากรู้อีก จะเตรียมนำมาสอนในวันศุกร์บ่ายLesson Plan
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