9Crest of Blake Ridge (Year 1979) Reflectionsในช่วงนี้อ่อนเพราะตัว cementation ในตะกอนเป็นไฮเดรทพบในตะกอนที่อยู่ในระหว่าง reflectionนี้ กับ Sea FloorBottom-Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) on stacked reflection seismic data ศัพท์ใหม่ที่ต้องจำ..... BSR
10What is Gas Hydrate?Gas Hydrate is an Ice-liked crystalline solid formed from a mixture of water and natural gas, usually methane. They occur in the pore spaces of sediments, and may form cement nodes or layers.คือ ผลึกที่เหมือนกับน้ำแข็ง เกิดมาจากก๊าซธรรมชาติ (โดยมาก คือ มีเทน) ผลึกเหล่านี้เกิดอยู่ในช่องว่างในเนื้อหินตะกอน และ มันอาจทำตัวเป็น ตัวเชื่อมเกาะกันเป็นกลุ่ม หรือ เป็น ชั้น
11(ดูภาพขยายถัดไป) ผิวน้ำ พื้นมหาสมุทร BSR Gas Hydrate stability in ocean sediments.ผิวน้ำGas HydrateStability CurveIn sea water.Gasพื้นมหาสมุทรsolidBSR(ดูภาพขยายถัดไป)ต้องไม่ลืมว่า หากมีก๊าซไม่มาก ย่อมไม่มีก๊าซไฮเดรท
15Figure 1:Index map of the Messoyakha Gas Field (after Krason and Finley, 1992). The products from Messoyakha is supplied to Norilsk through a pair of pipelines. The gas from super giant gas fields in the western part, such as Urengoy and Yamburg, is supplied to the west.
22in-place gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) 607 TCM or 21,444 TCFIn addition, the assessment has determined that a mean of190 TCM or 6,710 TCF of this resource occurs as relatively high-concentration accumulations within sand reservoirs, with the remainder occurring within clay-dominated sediments.Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008
23ResultsThe volume of undiscovered in-place gas hydrate is expressed as a cumulative probability distribution.The total volume of in-place gas hydrate on the GOM OCS is projected to range from314 TCM to 974 TCM (95% to 5%),with a mean of 607 TCM.As in most stochastic resource assessments, and certainly in one where a new methodology has been developed and deployed, the reader is encouraged to place considerable interpretative weight on the entire range of possible outcomes.Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008
24the mean in-place resource in sandstone reservoirs equals 190 TCM Updated releases of the MMS hydrate assessment will contain results from a stochastic technically recoverable model that will only consider sand-hosted resources as candidates for commercial production.the mean in-place resource in sandstone reservoirs equals 190 TCMMap of in-place gas hydrate resources - sand only. Values are trillion cubic meters per cell.Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008
26ใช้เวลา 114 วัน สำรวจ 4 พื้นที่ ในช่วงเวลา เมษายน – สิงหาคม 2006 รายงานนี้เปิดเผย เดือน กพ 2008US-India study discovers large gas hydrate presenceAn international team นำโดย1) the US Geological Survey (USGS) 2) India’s Directorate General of Hydrocarbonsได้เปิดเผย ผลงานที่เรียกได้ว่าthe world’s most comprehensivegas hydrate field venture to date.National Gas Hydrate Program 01 (NGHP)ใช้เวลา 114 วัน สำรวจ 4 พื้นที่ในช่วงเวลา เมษายน – สิงหาคม 2006
27NGHP Expedition 01 to explore 10 sites in four areas: (1) the Kerala-Konkan basin in the Arabian Sea on India’s westerncontinental shelf;(2) the petroliferous Krishna-Godawari basin(3) Mahanadi basin in the Bay of Bengal;(4) An unexplored Andaman Islands.
28Scientists conducted ocean drilling, coring, logging, and analytical activities to assess the geologic occurrence, regional context, and……
29and characteristicsof gas hydrate deposits along India.
30ผลงานNational Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 เริ่มทำการสำรวจ ปี 2006(1) the Krishna-Godavari basin, เก็บตัวอย่าง ได้ the richest marine gas hydrate accumulations ever discovered.(2) off the Andaman Islands, one of the thickest and deepest gas hydrate occurrences yet known, with gas hydrate-bearing volcanic ash layers as deep as 600 mbelow the seafloor.(3) the Mahanadi basin, “For the first time, a fully developed gas hydrate system was established in the Mahanadi basin.”
34Korean national Program expedition confirm Rich Gas Hydrate deposits in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. November 2007 marked the successful completion of South Korea’s first large-scale gas hydrate exploration and drilling expedition in the East Sea.Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Expedition 1 (UBGH1), explored and recovered gas-hydrate-bearing sediments at three different locations in the Ulleung Basin.The Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) contracted Fugro to supply drilling, wireline logging, coring and associated services for Expedition UBGH1, while other companies including Schlumberger and Geotek provided Logging While Drilling (LWD) and core analysis services respectively. Technical decisions directing the scientific aspects of the work were made by the Korea Gas Hydrate R&D Organization and the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM).Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008
35Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008 UlleungBasinRef: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008
36significant gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs were documented up to 150 m below the seafloor and at water depths between 1800 to 2100 m.Study sites in the Ulleung Basin, a back-arc basin off the east coast of South Korea.Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008
37Huge Gas Hydrate was found in Ulleung Basin in 2007. Becomes the 5th country to locate Gas Hydrate:USA, Japan, India, China.Huge Gas Hydrate structure 130 m thick and larger than ever found in Japan, India and China.UlleungBasinRef: IHS GEPS Report, 2010
38Goal: to begin commercial use of gas hydrates from 2015. South Korea announced a plan to search for new energy resources in the continental shelf in (As of Feb 18, 2010)Goal: to begin commercial use of gas hydrates from 2015.Ref: IHS GEPS Report, 2010
41Five years later, Japanese and Canadian researchers re-united Inuvik. Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik Gas Hydrate Research Project2002, scientists and engineers from 5 countries celebrated the success of the world’s first gas production from a methane hydrate reservoir at the Mallik 5L-38 research well in the Mackenzie Delta, Canada.Five years later, Japanese and Canadian researchers re-united Inuvik.This time, the goal was to undertake a longer test and advance new research and development studies utilizing the simple depressurization technique. The research program was successfully completed in April 2008.Figure 1: Landscape of the Mallik site (April 2007).Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008
42in the area between Tokai and the Sea of Kumano off central Japan.
43Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project After the first Mallik production test, the MH21 Gas Hydrate Research Consortium was formed.JOGMEC conducted a 3D seismic survey and an exploration drilling campaign in the eastern Nankai Trough area offshore Central Japan.The logging data and core samples taken in 16 locations revealed that the total gas in place in gas hydrate form in the 7000 km2 survey area is40 TCF.UlleungBasindrillingRef: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008
44Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project Winter 2007 OperationsThe production test operation started on April 2, 2007.The test zone, a 12 m-thick interval near the bottom of the gas hydrate occurrence zone (GHOZ), was selected based on the logging data.The world’s first gas production by the depressurization of natural gas hydrate in geological formation:During the most successful 12.5 hours of the test, at least 830 m3 of gas were produced and accumulated in the borehole.Cased-hole logging data taken before and after the test derived information about formation responses to depressurization.The test results verified the effectiveness of the depressurization method even for such a short duration.Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008
45Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project Winter 2008 Operationsto undertake longer term gas hydrate production testing.The Mallik 2L-38 production test well was re-entered, and a modified pumping system was run into the hole with sand control devices (Figure 3).The pump operation started on March 10 and continued until the preset test termination time of 12 noon on March 16, 2008.Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008
46Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project Figure 4: World’s first sustainable gas flare of methane from a hydrate source (March 10, 2008).Figure 5: Methane hydrate gas still being flared six days later (March 16, 2008).Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008
47Preliminary Results The 2008 testing program at Mallik confirmed that Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik Gas Hydrate Research ProjectPreliminary ResultsThe 2008 testing program at Mallik confirmed thatContinuous gas flow ranging from 2000 to 4000 m3/day was maintained throughout the course of the six-day (139-hour) test.Cumulative gas production volume was approximately 13,000 m3.Confirm the depressurization method is the correct approach.The gas rate prediction by the MH21-HYDRES gas hydrate reservoir simulation matches well with the observed values.Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008
48 Japan General Drilling MITI Gas hydrates Japan govt body MITIplans to drill for gas hydrates exploration in 2H fiscalin the area between Tokai and the Sea of Kumano off central Japan.Goal: possible commercial production by 2018.IHS Energy: October 8, 2010
56Please see Reliance strategy to keep concessions on gas hydrate possibility. KG BasinsOne cubic meter of gas hydrate will become 60 times when deassociated to gas methane. This make a big field.RELIANCE BLOCKS
57One cubic meter of gas hydrate will become 60 times when deassociated to gas methane. This make a big field.In this block, TCF of Pleistocene-Pliocene gas will be started to produce gas at 1,400 MMSCF/D in Q2 2009RELIANCE BLOCKS
58HIS news dated 21st April 2009KG-DWN-98/3KG-DWN-2003/1