What is Gas Hydrate? Gas Hydrate is an Ice-liked crystalline solid formed from a mixture of water and natural gas, usually methane. They occur in the pore spaces of sediments, and may form cement nodes or layers. คือ ผลึกที่เหมือนกับน้ำแข็ง เกิดมาจากก๊าซธรรมชาติ ( โดยมาก คือ มีเทน ) ผลึกเหล่านี้เกิดอยู่ในช่องว่างในเนื้อหิน ตะกอน และ มันอาจทำตัวเป็น ตัวเชื่อมเกาะกันเป็นกลุ่ม หรือ เป็น ชั้น
Gas Hydrate Stability Curve In sea water. solid Gas Gas Hydrate stability in ocean sediments. พื้นมหาสมุทร ผิวน้ำ BSR ต้องไม่ลืมว่า หากมีก๊าซไม่มาก ย่อมไม่มีก๊าซไฮเดรท ( ดูภาพขยายถัดไป )
Gas Hydrate Stability Curve In sea water. Gas Gas Hydrate stability in ocean sediments. พื้นมหาสมุทร ผิวน้ำ ต้องไม่ลืมว่า หากมีก๊าซไม่มาก ย่อมไม่มีก๊าซไฮเดรท อุณหภูมิ และ ความดัน เป็น ปัจจัยหลัก
Gas Hydrate Stability Curve In sea water. พื้นมหาสมุทร ต้องไม่ลืมว่า หากมีก๊าซไม่มาก ย่อมไม่มีก๊าซไฮเดรท
มาดู Fields ที่พบแล้ว
Figure 1:Index map of the Messoyakha Gas Field (after Krason and Finley, 1992). The products from Messoyakha is supplied to Norilsk through a pair of pipelines. The gas from super giant gas fields in the western part, such as Urengoy and Yamburg, is supplied to the west.
607 TCM or 21,444 TCF in-place gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) In addition, the assessment has determined that a mean of190 TCM or 6,710 TCF of this resource occurs as relatively high- concentration accumulations within sand reservoirs, with the remainder occurring within clay-dominated sediments. Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008
Results The volume of undiscovered in-place gas hydrate is expressed as a cumulative probability distribution. The total volume of in- place gas hydrate on the GOM OCS is projected to range from 314 TCM to 974 TCM (95% to 5%), with a mean of 607 TCM. As in most stochastic resource assessments, and certainly in one where a new methodology has been developed and deployed, the reader is encouraged to place considerable interpretative weight on the entire range of possible outcomes. Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008
Map of in-place gas hydrate resources - sand only. Values are trillion cubic meters per cell. Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008 Updated releases of the MMS hydrate assessment will contain results from a stochastic technically recoverable model that will only consider sand-hosted resources as candidates for commercial production. the mean in-place resource in sandstone reservoirs equals 190 TCM
US-India study discovers large gas hydrate presence An international team นำโดย 1) the US Geological Survey (USGS) 2) India’s Directorate General of Hydrocarbons ได้เปิดเผย ผลงานที่เรียกได้ว่า the world’s most comprehensive gas hydrate field venture to date. รายงานนี้เปิดเผย เดือน กพ 2008 National Gas Hydrate Program 01 (NGHP) ใช้เวลา 114 วัน สำรวจ 4 พื้นที่ ในช่วงเวลา เมษายน – สิงหาคม 2006
NGHP Expedition 01 to explore 10 sites in four areas: (1) the Kerala-Konkan basin in the Arabian Sea on India’s western continental shelf; (2) the petroliferous Krishna- Godawari basin (3) Mahanadi basin in the Bay of Bengal; (4) An unexplored Andaman Islands.
Scientists conducted ocean drilling, coring, logging, and analytical activities to assess the geologic occurrence, regional context, and……
and characteristics of gas hydrate deposits along India.
National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 เริ่มทำ การสำรวจ ปี 2006 (1) the Krishna-Godavari basin, เก็บ ตัวอย่าง ได้ the richest marine gas hydrate accumulations ever discovered. ผลง าน (2) off the Andaman Islands, one of the thickest and deepest gas hydrate occurrences yet known, with gas hydrate-bearing volcanic ash layers as deep as 600 m below the seafloor. (3) the Mahanadi basin, “For the first time, a fully developed gas hydrate system was established in the Mahanadi basin.”
Hydrate Stability Zone Thickness Map
Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008 Korean national Program expedition confirm Rich Gas Hydrate deposits in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. November 2007 marked the successful completion of South Korea’s first large-scale gas hydrate exploration and drilling expedition in the East Sea. Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Expedition 1 (UBGH1), explored and recovered gas-hydrate-bearing sediments at three different locations in the Ulleung Basin. The Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) contracted Fugro to supply drilling, wireline logging, coring and associated services for Expedition UBGH1, while other companies including Schlumberger and Geotek provided Logging While Drilling (LWD) and core analysis services respectively. Technical decisions directing the scientific aspects of the work were made by the Korea Gas Hydrate R&D Organization and the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM).
Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008 Ulleung Basin
Ref: US Dept of Energy, Spring 2008 Study sites in the Ulleung Basin, a back-arc basin off the east coast of South Korea. significant gas-hydrate- bearing reservoirs were documented up to 150 m below the seafloor and at water depths between 1800 to 2100 m.
Ulleung Basin Huge Gas Hydrate was found in Ulleung Basin in 2007. Becomes the 5 th country to locate Gas Hydrate: USA, Japan, India, China. Huge Gas Hydrate structure 130 m thick and larger than ever found in Japan, India and China. Ref: IHS GEPS Report, 2010
South Korea announced a plan to search for new energy resources in the continental shelf in 2010. (As of Feb 18, 2010) Goal : to begin commercial use of gas hydrates from 2015.
Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008 2002, scientists and engineers from 5 countries celebrated the success of the world’s first gas production from a methane hydrate reservoir at the Mallik 5L-38 research well in the Mackenzie Delta, Canada. Five years later, Japanese and Canadian researchers re-united Inuvik. This time, the goal was to undertake a longer test and advance new research and development studies utilizing the simple depressurization technique. The research program was successfully completed in April 2008. Figure 1: Landscape of the Mallik site (April 2007). Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project
in the area between Tokai and the Sea of Kumano off central Japan.
Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008 Ulleung Basin Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project After the first Mallik production test, the MH21 Gas Hydrate Research Consortium was formed. JOGMEC conducted a 3D seismic survey and an exploration drilling campaign in the eastern Nankai Trough area offshore Central Japan. The logging data and core samples taken in 16 locations revealed that the total gas in place in gas hydrate form in the 7000 km2 survey area is 40 TCF. drilling
Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008 Winter 2007 Operations The production test operation started on April 2, 2007. The test zone, a 12 m-thick interval near the bottom of the gas hydrate occurrence zone (GHOZ), was selected based on the logging data. During the most successful 12.5 hours of the test, at least 830 m3 of gas were produced and accumulated in the borehole. Cased-hole logging data taken before and after the test derived information about formation responses to depressurization. The test results verified the effectiveness of the depressurization method even for such a short duration. The world’s first gas production by the depressurization of natural gas hydrate in geological formation:
Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008 Winter 2008 Operations to undertake longer term gas hydrate production testing. The Mallik 2L-38 production test well was re-entered, and a modified pumping system was run into the hole with sand control devices (Figure 3). The pump operation started on March 10 and continued until the preset test termination time of 12 noon on March 16, 2008.
Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008 Figure 4: World’s first sustainable gas flare of methane from a hydrate source (March 10, 2008). Figure 5: Methane hydrate gas still being flared six days later (March 16, 2008).
Ref: US Dept of Energy, Summer 2008 Preliminary Results Aurora-JOGMEC-NRCan Mallik 2006-2008 Gas Hydrate Research Project The 2008 testing program at Mallik confirmed that Continuous gas flow ranging from 2000 to 4000 m3/day was maintained throughout the course of the six-day (139-hour) test. Cumulative gas production volume was approximately 13,000 m3. Confirm the depressurization method is the correct approach. The gas rate prediction by the MH21-HYDRES gas hydrate reservoir simulation matches well with the observed values.
Japan govt body MITI plans to drill for gas hydrates exploration in 2H fiscal 2011-2012. IHS Energy: October 8, 2010 Goal: possible commercial production by 2018. Japan General Drilling MITI Gas hydrates in the area between Tokai and the Sea of Kumano off central Japan.
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Paleo Gas Hydrate
RELIANCE BLOCKS KG Basins Please see Reliance strategy to keep concessions on gas hydrate possibility. One cubic meter of gas hydrate will become 60 times when deassociated to gas methane. This make a big field.
RELIANCE BLOCKS One cubic meter of gas hydrate will become 60 times when deassociated to gas methane. This make a big field. In this block, 10-14 TCF of Pleistocene-Pliocene gas will be started to produce gas at 1,400 MMSCF/D in Q2 2009
KG-DWN-2003/1 HIS news dated 21 st April 2009 KG-DWN-98/3