Fibrous materials, by-product of crop cultivation Abundantly supply Low CP (3 – 13%) Deficient in fermentable energy Low digestibility Low in minerals. Crop residues Most crop residues are:-
By-products from industrial processing of main crops & animal products Less fiber with higher nutrient content as compared to crop residues Used as supplement to crop residues Agro-industrial by-product (AIBP)
Rice straw is a low quality feed, contains 3-4% CP, but is important for ruminants in dry season. Feeding as a single diet can not provide sufficient nutrients to cover the maintenance requirement of animals. Therefore they lose weight
Sweet corn stalk, husk and cob are also good quality feed for ruminants. The surplus can be preserved as silage
Baby corn husk and stalk after fresh ear harvesting are very good quality feed. They are high required by dairy farmers. The stalk should be chopped before feeding to avoid feed selection Husk Baby corn stalk
Silage is preserved forages base on acidification due to lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) will produce lactic acid to lower the pH. At pH around 4, micro- organisms in the silo will be killed or stop activity. Plant material will be preserved. Target : get a feeding value as close as possible to the fresh forage with optimal safety
Many kinds of plant can be ensiled if they have enough soluble carbohydrates and optimum moisture. To obtain anaerobic condition, it should be cut in small pieces (if necessary), pressed tightly in a good silo. Fermentation process will be completed within 3 weeks. The silage can be kept unchanged for a long time if the silo is in good condition.
Corn and sorghum are ideal plants for silage. Legumes have high protein content, so high buffering capacity. They need some supplements. Straws are not appropriate for silage making
Silage making from sweet corn stalk (after fresh ear harvesting) in two layer plastic bags at a small dairy farm. The inner bag should be vacuum and tied tightly. The outer bags are sown.
It is palatable to ruminants and pigs. The surplus can be ensiled, but should be supplemented with ground corn to adjust moisture content and increased nutrients Sweet corn husk and cob from canning factories
Sweet corn husk and cob silage at a dairy cooperative
Good quality silage has brownish green color, good aroma (acid odor), good texture, no mold, slime or rotting