12. แสดงรายการเกี่ยวกับการบิน (Aeronautical Symbols) Aerodrome InformationCharacteristicsTraffic Control BoundariesInstrument Landing AidsRadio Facilities : Beacons, Control Tower Frequencies, VOR, ILSAeronautical LightsWhite – Green :Civil Airfield2 White – Green : Mil AirfieldWhite – Yellow : Water airfieldWhite – red : significant land markMiscellaneous : Caution, Danger area, Isogonics Lines
2Scale Scale = Chart Length / Earth Length Small Scale : Large Area Less Detail1:600,000 or smallerMiddle ScaleBigger than 1:600,000 but smaller than 1:75,000Large Scale : Small Area More Detail1:75,000 and biggerDistance : measure between parallel of latitude by measuring meridian1 minute = 1 NM.
3Plotting and Measuring Basic operations in Dead Reckoning.Plotting is the location of points or courses on chart by their coordinates of latitude and longitude.Measuring is the determination of distance and direction between points on a chart.Tools: pencil, eraser, dividers, and plotter
4Plotter A device for drawing and measuring courses and distances Weems Aircraft Plotter Mark II, MK IINThe principal use of a plotter is the measurement of true course, which is line on a chart representing the path over which the aircraft to travel.Its direction is determined by the angle it make with the meridians, which run north and south
5Plotter Straight edge aligned with True Course (TC) Center hole over meridian or parallelScale indicated by arrowRead direction on scale over meridian or parallelA course between 0º and 180º is measured along the outer scale;A course between 180º and 360º is measured along the inner scaleIt is wise to estimate the direction roughly prior to exact measurement as “a commonsense check”
7Plotting and Measuring on a Lambert Chart The graticule of a Lambert chart, is characterized by converging meridians.The error will be at a maximum for east-west courses and at a minimum for north – south coursesFor distance of miles, it is advantageous to make one course measurement for entire route at mid-longitude;For longer runs it is wiser to break the course into segments, changing to new course with each new segment encountered
9Plotting and Measuring on a Lambert Chart On Lambert charts the plotters may be convenient than dividers as a means of measuring distance.Since the Lambert charts was seen to be uniformity of scale over rather large areasHence, dividers spanned to 100 miles on one Lambert would measure 100 miles on any part of any Lambert of the same scale
10Plotting and Measuring on a Mercator Chart On a Mercator, meridians are parallel lines. Any straight line cutting them will be a transversal, cutting across each at the same angle.Direction from true north may be measured accurately at any meridian and not only at mid-longitude as on a Lambert.Scale of distance on a Mercator is constantly changing. The scale along any Mercator course is relatively contracted on the portion nearest the equator, and expanded toward the pole.The true Mercator distance of the entire course can be measured only against a scale chosen along a portion of course where an average scale exists.
13Words for Air Navigation Track (TR) is the actual horizontal direction made by the aircraft over the earth (due to wind) or actual pathCourse (C) is the intend horizontal direction or travel. There are TC, MC, CC (Compass Course) = Track Made GoodTrue Course (TC) : The intended or actual path over the ground measured from true northHeading (HDG) is the horizontal direction in which the A/C is pointed. There are TH, MH, CHTrue Heading (TH): the direction from true north in which the aircraft is pointedGround Speed (GS) Speed in relation to a fixed point on the earth. Knots, MPH, km/hrTrue Airspeed (TAS) Speed of an aircraft through a mass of air
14Wind and Wind Effect Wind has direct and speed Wind direction “from” The lateral displacement effected by wind is “drift”,The angle between intended and actual track is “drift angle”The number of degrees that an aircraft is turn into wind in order to fly a desired path over the ground is called “ the drift-correction angle”The drift-correction angle is the same as drift angle but opposite directionIn making a drift correction, the pilot has not prevented drift but corrected for it.
16Vectors and the Wind Triangle In Dead Reckoning there are six basic measures with concerned:True Air Speed (TAS): Speed of an aircraft through a mass of airTrue Heading (TH): The direction from true north in which the aircraft is pointed&4. Wind Direction / Velocity (W/V)5. Ground Speed (GS) Speed in relation to a fixed point on the earth.6. True Course (TC) : The intended or actual path over the ground measured from true north
17The six measures listed always pair together as the following vectors: Wind Direction – Wind SpeedTrue Heading – True Air SpeedTrue Course – Ground Speed
18Wind Determination Forecast Winds: Winds are measured and predicted by weather experts (Balloons and analysis of pressure system)Winds at flying altitudes for use in planning a flightWinds change with altitude and with the nature of the terrain over which they passDirect Observation: at altitude of a few throusand feet , wind direction can sometimes be checked by watching smoke plumes; over water, by the washback of foam from whitecaps. The number of whitecaps is also an indication of wind speed.Winds change in both speed and direction with altitudeThe passage of cloud shadows across the ground is usable at times as a check on wind directionIn fast, high flying aircraft none of these devices is value
19Wind DeterminationWinds Between Two Positions : it is average wind between two positionThe average True Heading (TH) and True Airspeed (TAS) derived from the aircraft’s instruments,The Ground Speed (GS) and Drift Angle, are entered on the wind face of the computer and unknown wind vector is solvedDrift Angle is the difference between Track (TR) and TH ; if TH is greater, drift is left, if TR is greater, drift is right
20Wind Triangle Air Vector (Air Plot) Wind Vector (W/V) TH : direction of the vectorTAS: magnitude of the vectorWind Vector (W/V)Wind DirectionSpeedThe tail of wind vector always connected to the head of the air vector.Cross Vector or Ground VectorGS: Ground SpeedTR: Track
22Drift Angle is the difference between Track (TR) and TH ; if TH is greater, drift is left, if TR is greater, drift is rightTH 360ºTH 360ºTR 005ºTR 350ºDrift Angle 5ºLDrift Angle 5ºRTR is greater, drift is rightTH is greater, drift is left
30Line Of Position (LOP)LOP is a line connecting all possible geographic positions of an aircraft at a given instantThe line can be straight or curved, depending on the source of information:A true bearing from a mountain peak will be a Straight line Of Position;Distance from an object will be a circle of radius equal to the distanceLines of position determined by loran are hyperbolas
32FixA fix is an established geographic position of an aircraft for a given instant time. It is a point, not a line.A fix can be found only by crossing two or more LOP’s independently determinedAny two LOP’s intersecting at an angle greater than 30º will normally provide reliable fixing, the best results are obtained when they cross at right angles
34AltitudeIndicated Altitude: is read directly from altimeter when it is directly adjusted to the local altimeter settingPressure Altitude: is displayed on altimeter when it is set to the standard sea level atmospheric pressure of in.HgAt or above transition altitudeCalled Flight LevelDensity Altitude: is pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature used to determine aircraft performanceTrue Altitude: is the actual height of an object above mean sea levelTrue altitude and Pressure Altitude are equal only when standard atmospheric condition existAbsolute Altitude: is the actual height of the airplane above the earth’s surfaceHeight above ground level (AGL)Height Above Airport (HAA)Height Above Touch Down Zone (HAT)Threshold Crossing Height (TCH)
35Altitude 1 inch Hg = 1,000 ft 1 mb = 30 ft When flying from high to low (Press), or hot to cold , look out below.
422. วัดระยะทาง ทิศทางของ Track ที่จะบินไป และ หา Variation ตามเส้นทางที่ผ่าน มุมที่ต่างกันระหว่าง True North กับ Magnetic North
433. หาพื้นที่ Prohibited, Restricted และ Danger Areas ที่มีผลต่อเส้นทางบิน
444.คำนวณหา Safety Height ในเส้นทางบินกรณีที่ต้องลดระยะสูง เมื่อบินในลักษณะอากาศที่เป็น IMC It is suggested that you cross mountain passes at an altitude at least 1,000 feet above the pass elevation.The cloud clearance requirement is at least 1,000 feet below the clouds.You should make sure that you have at least a 2,000 foot ceiling over the highest pass you will cross