What is HIV and how can I get it? HIV - the human immunodeficiency virus - is a virus that kills your body’s "CD4 cells." CD4 cells (also called T-helper cells) help your body fight off infection and disease. HIV can be passed from person to person if someone with HIV infection has sex with or shares drug injection needles with another person. It also can be passed from a mother to her baby when she is pregnant, when she delivers the baby, or if she breastfeeds her baby. What is AIDS? AIDS - the acquired immune deficiency syndrome - is a disease you get when HIV destroys your body’s immune system. Normally, your immune system helps you fight off illness. When your immune system fails you can become very sick and can die. What do I need to know about HIV? The first cases of AIDS were identified in the United States in 1981, but AIDS most likely existed here and in other parts of the world for many years before that time. In 1984 scientists proved that HIV causes AIDS. Anyone can get HIV. The most important thing to know is how you can get the virus. You can get HIV: By having unprotected sex- sex without a condom- with someone who has HIV. By sharing a needle and syringe to inject drugs or sharing drug equipment used to prepare drugs for injection with someone who has HIV. From a blood transfusion. Babies born to women with HIV also can become infected during pregnancy, birth, or breast-feeding.
You cannot get HIV: By working with or being around someone who has HIV. From sweat, spit, tears, clothes, drinking fountains, phones, toilet seats, or through everyday things like sharing a meal. From insect bites or stings. From donating blood. From a closed-mouth kiss (but there is a very small chance of getting it from open-mouthed or "French" kissing with an infected person because of possible blood contact). (References :
. Direction : Read the following sentences, then match the underlined words to the meanings or definitions given. 1. HIV is a progressive disease which the immune response ultimately fails to control. 2. Older women can suffer bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. 3. If you don't clean the wound properly you could get an infection. 4. Smoking is a major cause of heart disease. 5. The nurse gave me an injection. 6. The health centre provides milk and vitamins for pregnant women. 7. Mrs. Arnold is due to deliver a baby girl in April. 8. She has to breastfeed her baby before going for work. 9. She has acquired an address and a site on the World Wide Web. 10. The average life expectancy of a child with Down syndrome was 9 years in The school was completely destroyed by fire. 12. He was too far away to be able to identify faces. 13. The custom of arranged marriages still exists in many countries. 14. You should check all your electrical equipment regularly. 15. Every 3 weeks her baby needs a blood transfusion.
How can I protect myself? Don’t share (1)…………. and syringes used to inject (2)……………, steroids, vitamins, or for (3)………..…… or body (4)……..……. Also, don’t share (5)………..……. used to prepare drugs to be injected. Many people have been infected with HIV, hepatitis, and other germs this way. The surest way to avoid (6)………..……. of sexually transmitted (7)……..………. is to (8) …….………from sexual (9)………………….., or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous (10)………………… with a partner who you know is uninfected. If you are (11) ……………….., talk to a doctor or your local health department about being tested for HIV. Drug (12) ……….……….. are available to help you and reduce the (13) ……….…… of passing HIV to your baby if you have it. Don’t share (14) …………..…… or toothbrushes because of the possibility of (15)………………… with blood.
. CAN CANNOT Direction : Find the pictures which show ways you cannot get AIDS and how people can get AIDS. 1. Shaking hands or touching people 2. Playing with someone who is infected 3. Looking after animals 4. Sharing dirty needles 5. Mosquito bites 6. Receiving bloodfrom blood supply that has notbeen tested for AIDS 7. Eating and drinking 8. Sharing a bath or latrine 9. Wearing second hand clothes 10. Sitting next to someone who is infected 11. Coughing, sneezing or talking 12. Having unprotected sex with some one who is infected 13. Having aninjection with a new or clean needles and syringe 14. Shaking hands or touching people 15. Swimming in a poolor river 16. Living with a parent or relatives who has AIDS
Direction : Look and read this diagram below, then write the sentences about the people who may be infected AIDS virus. WHO MAY BE INFECTED WITH AIDS ? The diagram below shows how 9 people (including an unborn child) are linked-directly or indirectly-with Michael. Michael is infected with AIDS. He does not know this, and through his actions he may infect others. Of all the people described below, who do you think may be infected with AIDS because of Michael? Maria is a prostitute. She makes all her clients use condoms. Angela is Michael’s wife. She is pregnant. Michael does not know he is infected with AIDS.. Mark is the son of Angela and Michael. Edward is an intravenous drug addict. George is bisexual. George has sex with Maria. AnthonyJohnny Edward has sex with George. David and Edward share intravenous drug needles. David had an accident. He received Michael’s blood in a transfusion. Michael has sex with Maria. Anthony has sex with Maria. Johnny has sex with Maria. Michael donated blood. David has sex with Maria. Michael has sex with Angela. He doesn’t use a condom.
People who may be infected with AIDS because of Michael may be infected with AIDS because
. There are very few developing countries in the world where public policy has been effective in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS on a national scale, but Thailand is an exception. A massive programme to control HIV has reduced visits to commercial sex workers by half, raised condom usage, decreased the prevalence of STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections) dramatically, and achieved substantial reductions in new HIV infections. Thailand, though, is also a reminder that success can be relative. Its well funded, politically supported and comprehensive prevention programmes have saved millions of lives, reducing the number of new HIV infections from 143,000 in 1991 to 19,000 in Nonetheless, more than one-in-100 adults in this country of 65 million people is infected with HIV, and AIDS has become a leading cause of death. Unless past efforts are sustained and new sources of infection are addressed, the striking achievements made in controlling the epidemic could now be put at risk. Factors such as an increase in risky sexual behaviour and a rising number of STI cases have led to concerns that Thailand could face a resurgence of HIV and AIDS in coming years.
1. What is this passage mainly about? a) Some developing countries where achieved in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS. b) The public policy of some developing countries in the world. c) Thailand succeeded in preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS. d) New HIV infections increased dramatically in Thailand. 4. Which is not the success of the programme to control HIV? a) Decrease new HIV infectionsb) Increase condom usage c) Increase in visiting commercial sex workers d) All are correct. 2. What does the word ‘massive’ in paragraph 1 mean? a) simpleb) big c) importantd) interesting 3. According to paragraph 1, what does it tell us? a)Some developing countries have been effective in preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS except Thailand. b)A national scale shows Thailand is the least effective in preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS. c)Thailand is the only country which has public policy in preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS. d)Thailand is a developing country where a public policy has been effective in preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS. 4. Which is not the success of the programme to control HIV? a) Decrease new HIV infectionsb) Increases condom usage c) Increase in visiting commercial sex workersd) All are correct
10. According to this passage, which sentence is not correct? a) The number of new HIV infections in Thailand decreased since b) More than one-in-100 adults of 65 million people in Thailand is infected with HIV. c) Thailand is one of the developing countries which has public policy in preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS. d) If there isn’t the plan to prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS in Thailand, it could face a resurgence of HIV and AIDS in coming years. 8. What does the word ‘epidemic’ in paragraph 3 mean? a) limitedb) isolated c) wided) widespread 9. What is the major factor of the increase in HIV and AIDS? a) Risky sexual behaviourb) Fund c) Comprehensive prevention programmesd) Political support 7. …………….., and AIDS has become a leading cause of death. What does the underlined part mean? a) All people will die of AIDS.b) AIDS causes the most death. c) AIDS causes the least death.d) AIDS leads to death. 6. What is the reduction of new HIV infections from ? a) 143,000b) 124,000 c) 19,000d) 125, What makes the programme successful? a) Fundb) Political support c) Refundd) A and b are correct.
Direction : Find the pictures which show ways you cannot get AIDS and how people can get AIDS. Pictures show ways you can or cannot get AIDS : CAN4612 CANNOT Direction : Match the words to the meanings or definitions given. Direction : Fill the gaps with one word from the list
Direction : Look and read this diagram below, then write the sentences about the people who may be infected with AIDS.