Cultural notes The Australian continent was explored first by the Dutch in the 17th century and then by the English Captain, James Cook who reached the coast of Australia in 1770. The first English colony was founded in 1788 after the British occupied the territory of New South Wales. New Zealand was first explored by a Dutchman, named Tasman, and later by James Cook in 1769. The islands became a British colony under the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 and later earned dominion status in 1907. Both Australia and New Zealand are part of the Commonwealth of Nations, a confederation of 53 countries, many of which were former colonies in the British Empire, headed by Queen Elisabeth II, but are today united by a common aim to promote peace, democracy and development.
Dreamtime represents the spiritual beliefs of the Aboriginal Australians on the origins of the world. These people have a strong belief in the sacred value of the land and affirm the existence of a close nexus between the worlds of nature and spirit. American Indians is the generally accepted term applied to the indigenous populations living in North America prior to the arrival of the Europeans. There is much controversy over the name, even among the multitude of tribes within the United States and Canada. Some of the more “politically correct” terms are Native Americans, First Nations, First People and Amerinds. The term Aboriginals is usually associated with Australia and the term Indios with Central and South America.
600 didgeridoo storytelling New Zealand and the Cook Islands canoes hunters farmers
Possible answers 1 to fight for their land today. 2 it educates children about life, spirituality, their ancestors, heritage and the dreamtime. 3 an advanced stone-age culture. 4 the arrival of weapons from Europe, tribal wars and the selling of the Mãori land reduced the population to 40,000. 5 they settled in different areas, with a different climate and landscape. 6 epidemics, war and violence.
democracy (n) a system of government in which people vote in elections to choose the people who will govern them ( การปกครองระบอบประชาธิปไตย ) parliament (n) the main law-making institution in some countries. In the UK, Parliament consists of politicians elected to the House of Commons and members of the House Lords ( รัฐสภา ) election (n) an occasion when people vote for someone to represent them, especially in a government ( การเลือกตั้ง ) Member of Parliament [MP] (n) someone who has been elected to represent people from a particular district in a parliament ( สมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎร ) government (n) the people who control a country, region, or town and make decisions about its laws and taxes: followed by a singular or plural verb ( รัฐบาล ) Vocabulary
opposition (n)the political parties in a country that are not part of the government ( ฝ่ายค้าน ) constituency (n) a division of a country that elects a representative to a parliament ( เขตเลือกตั้ง ) bills (n) a written document containing a proposal for a new law ( ร่างกฎหมาย ) candidate (n) one of the people competing in an election ( ผู้สมัครรับเลือกตั้ง ) bench (n) (in the British Parliament) a seat where a particular group of politicians sit ( ที่นั่งในรัฐสภาของอังกฤษ ) run the country (phr) to organise or be in charge of a country ( บริหารประเทศ ) debate (v) if people debate a subject, they discuss it formally before making a decision, usually by voting ( อภิปราย ) issues (n) a subject that people discuss or argue about, especially relating to society, politics etc. ( ประเด็น ) appoint (v) to choose someone to do a particular job or have a particular position ( แต่งตั้ง )
Answers Elections: every 5 years, over 18 (other possible answers: MPs, constituency, seat) Government: 100 people (other possible answers: Prime Minister, Secretaries of State, Government Department or Ministry) House of Commons: speaker, bills (other possible answers: debates, Government, Opposition, benches) House of Lords: 750 (other possible answers: not elected, recommended, appointed)
Answers 1.the Queen, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. 2.Cardiff 3.issues like defence and foreign affairs. 4.become the MPs for the constituencies and have a seat in Parliament. 5.on a raised chair at one end of the Chamber. 6.recommended by the Prime Minister and other special commissions, and appointed by the Queen.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
global (n) covering or affecting the whole world ( เกี่ยวกับโลก ) issue (n) an important topic that people are discussing or arguing about ( ประเด็น, หัวข้อ, เรื่อง ) goodwill ambassadors (n) someone who expands the knowledge of others regarding their or another country’s culture and its people. Celebrities such as Angelina Jolie and Russell Simmons receive invitations. There are no applications- you must have political connections. ( ทูตสันถวไมตรี ) raise funds/money (n) to collect money that you can use to do a particular job or help people ( เรี่ยไรเงิน, รวบรวมเงิน ) principle (n) a rule or a theory that something is based on ( หลักการ ) adequate (adj) enough in quantity or of a good enough quality for a particular purpose ( เพียงพอ ) monsoon (n) a period of heavy rain in summer in S Asia; the rain that falls during this period ( ฤดูมรสุม ) Vocabulary
refugee camps (n)a place where people who have escaped their own country can live, usually in bad conditions and only expecting to stay for a limited time ( ค่ายผู้อพยพ ) second-hand (adj)not new; owned by somebody else before ( มือสอง ) goods (n) things that are produced to be sold ( สินค้า ) hunger (n) the state of not having enough food to eat, especially when this causes illness or death ( ความหิว, ความอดอยาก ) forestry (n) the science or practice of planting and taking care of trees and forests ( การทำป่าไม้ ) fishery (n) a part of the sea or a river where fish are caught in large quantities ( การประมง )
New York actors London Eglantyne Jebb Rome nutrition
Answers 1.It has 192 member states and 6 official languages. 2.The FAO helps developing countries to modernise and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries. 3.The FAO guarantees good nutrition for all. 4.Eglantyne Jebb started Save the Children because she was shocked at the terrible conditions of children after the First World War and the Russian Revolution. 5.Save the Children wants to guarantee that children have adequate food, shelter, healthcare and education and are free from violence, abuse and exploitation. 6.Their objective for 2010 is to guarantee education to 8,000,000 children in 20 countries.
Answers 1. The BBC in the UK has two main channels and also other channels like BBC3, BBC4, two children’s channels and BBC News 24 on digital TV. 2. BBC World is a news and current affairs channel. 3.BBC Prime is a subscription channel for general entertainment. 4. Ted Turner founded CNN in 1980. 5. It broadcasts from its headquarters in Atlanta, and from studios in New York and Washington. 6. CNN International can be seen in more than 200 countries.
transmission (n) the act or process of sending out an electronic signal or message or of broadcasting a radio or television programme ( การกระจายเสียง, การส่ง สัญญาณ, การถ่ายทอด ) broadcasting (n) the business of making and sending out radio and television programmes ( ธุรกิจเกี่ยวกับการกระจาย เสียงวิทยุหรือแพร่ภาพรายการโทรทัศน์ ) mogul (n) an important person who is very rich or powerful ( บุคคลสำคัญ, ผู้มั่งคั่ง, เจ้าพ่อ ) satellite (n) a device sent up into space to travel round the Earth, used for collecting information or communicating by radio, television, etc. ( ดาวเทียม ) scene (n) the place where an accident, crime etc. happened ( สถานที่เกิดเหตุ ) current affairs (n) political news about events happening now ( สถานการณ์ปัจจุบันทางการเมือง ) Vocabulary
a circulation of (phr)the usual number of copies of a newspaper or magazine that are sold each day, week, etc. ( ยอดขาย, ยอดจำหน่าย ) broadsheet (n) a newspaper printed on a large size of paper, generally considered more serious than smaller newspapers ( หนังสือพิมพ์ขนาดใหญ่ ) tabloid (n) a newspaper with small pages (usually half the size of those in larger papers); a newspaper of this size with short articles and a lot of pictures and stories about famous people, often thought of as less serious than other newspapers ( หนังสือพิมพ์ขนาดเล็กที่มักจะมีข่าวเกี่ยวกับคนดัง ) Vocabulary
Answers UKUSA The SunUSA Today The TimesThe Wall Street Journal The Daily Telegraph The Washington Post The New York Times Answers
UKUSA The Sun 3 million copies USA Today 2.2 million copies The Times established 1785 The Wall Street Journal financial paper The Daily Telegraph established 1855 The Washington Post authoritative paper The New York Times authoritative paper Answers