งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission of Rice Production in THAILAND"— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:
1 Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission of Rice Production in THAILAND School of Renewable Energy (SCORE),Maejo University, ChIANG mai, ThailandEnergy Consumption and CO2 Emission of Rice Production in THAILANDTanate Chaichana*, Natthawud Dussadee** Assit.Prof.Dr., School of Renewable Energy, Maejo university, (Thailand)Table 1 Energy EquivalentEnergy TypeEnergy EquivalentLabor1.96MJ/hourAnimal ( kg)10.1MJ/ hourFueldieselgasolineelectricity43.339.714.4MJ/literMJ/kW-hFertilizerNP (P2O5)K (K2O)manure7614100.303MJ/kgChemical120Rice seed0.674MJ/BathPumping (4 – 6 hp.)13.59MJ/RaiWalking tractor (15 – 24 hp.)70.31Driving tractor (80 – 110 hp.)337.6Harvestingmachinery(100 hp.)(185 – 215 hp.)423.4709ABSTRACTRice production process is both an energy consumer and producer. It was requesting various types of energy. There are four usually steps for rice production, soil preparation process, activation process, cultural practice process and harvesting process. Many type of production factors are requite such as working time, force, fertilizer, engine, fuel, and seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy consumptions and CO2 emission in rice production process of Thailand. The result shows that the suitable size of walking tractor to soil preparation was 10.0 – 11.5 hp. It required minimum energy consumption. The method in harvesting process has an important effect to total energy consumption and CO2 emission. Rice production process of Thailand was required energy consumption 36.2 – 72.4 kgOE/Rai/season and emitted – kg CO2/Rai/season to environment.Table 2 CO2 Conversion factorThe energy consumption was analyzed from average production factor, energy used or energy equivalent was analyzed by Lift Cycle Assessment method (LCA) and the shadow energy in agricultural engine. Suppose that the energy for produced fertilizer and chemical is electricity. The average direct CO2 emission by humans is g CO2/minute. Energy consumption of rice production is show in table 4The average energy consumption per season was minimum at 1,527.4 MJ/Rai and maximum at 3,057.9 MJ/Rai. It is depending on the method in cultivation process and harvesting process (see Fig 1). More than 75% of rice production areas were used broadcasting method and harvest by truck machine. So, estimation CO2 emission was studied in 6 case studies (Table 3)Fig 2 is shown energy consumption in kgOE (kilogram Oil Equivalent) term and CO2 emission in kgCO2 unit. Both reference in Thai’s unit of area in Rai (=1,600 m2). The result shown that case 6 and 3 was requiting maximum value of energy consumption and cause a lot of CO2. Case 6 and 3 used a lot of fossil fuel for agricultural machinery. Rice production process was requite 36.2 – 72.4 kgOE/Rai of energy and generated – kg CO2/Rai to environment.Table 4 Energy consumptionFuel typeelectricitygasolinedieselLPGtCO2/TOE7.023.16wet season (MJ/Rai)dry season (MJ/Rai)Soil preparation processlabor7.578.96diesel143.54114.47machinery210.93Cultivation processT.B.53.811.8675.033.52seed40.03157.537.2148.36Cultural practice process24.619.6Gasoline189.510.7Diesel288.5245.9Fertilizer953.0655.2Chemical43.410.9167.883.9Harvesting processM1M2M354.6744.353.2454.7-103.36157.48423.41708.96Production factors were changed to an equivalent value of energy consumption per production area (MJ/Rai) by using energy equivalent value (table 1). In this study was interested the CO2 emission from fuel. Table 2 show the equivalent value was used to estimate CO2 emission and GJ=1 TOE (tone oil equivalent).Process MethodFig 1 Rice production process and method to determine the production factorSoil preparation process3 times of ploughCultivationprocessMethod 1 Broadcasting (B)Method 2 Transplantation (T)Cultural practiceWater controlFertilizationChemical usedHarvestingMethod 1 Reap and thresh by human (M1)Method 2 Reap by human and thresh by thresh machine (M2)Method 3 Reap and thresh by machine (M3)Fig 2 CO2 emission ant energy consumption for rice production in ThailandTable 3 case studyCasestudyCultivationmethodHarvestingCase 1Broadcastingmethod 1Case 2method 2Case 3method 3Case 4TransplantationCase 5Case 6ACKNOWLEDGMENT I gratefully acknowledge to Energy research center Meajo University and establishment program of agricultural engineering department, Chiang Mai University for support of laboratory, equipment and research fund. Special thank go to Thai’s farmer who support the data.