Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 ช่วงปลายทศวรรษ 1960 อุตสาหกรรมการขุดเจาะน้ำมันก้าวหน้ามากขึ้น มีการแสวงหาแหล่งน้ำมันออกไปลึกและไกล มากขึ้น Britain, Denmark and Germany มีข้อขัดแย้งมากขึ้นในเรื่องการใช้ประโยชน์จากไหล่ทวีปเพราะเป็นที่ที่ อุดมด้วยน้ำมัน (1 nautical mile = 1,853 metres or 6,080 feet or 1,000 fathoms)
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 สนธิสัญญา 1. First United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea [UNCLOS I] การประชุมครั้งนี้ได้ตราสนธิสัญญาเจนีวา 4 ฉบับ [ Geneva Conventions 1958 – GC] ได้แก่ Geneva Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone (TSC) Geneva Convention on the High Seas [HS] Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf [CS] Geneva Convention on Fishing and Conservation 2. Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea 1982 [UNCLOS III] การประชุมครั้งนี้ได้ตรากฎหมายทะเลอีกฉบับคือ the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea [UNCLOS 1982] มีผลบังคับตั้งแต่วันที่ 16 th November 1994 ประเทศพัฒนาใน ตอนแรกคัดค้านส่วนที่ 11 ว่าด้วยทะเลลึกแต่ต่อมาส่วนนี้ได้รับการแก้ไข (‘1994 Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of UNCLOS 1982’) ทั้งนี้เพื่อให้เป็นที่ยอมรับของ ประเทศเหล่านี้และต่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงทางเศรษฐกิจและการเมืองในลักษณะที่เอื้อประโยชน์แก่ ตลาดการค้า หลายมาตราใน UNCLOS 1982 ก็ซ้ำกับสนธิสัญญาเจนีวาทั้งสี่ฉบับ
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Territorial Sea (Article 2-32 UNLOS 1982) Sovereignty of a coastal state; the air space over the TS and its bed and subsoil; 12 nautical miles measured from baselines (Normal baseline and/or Straight baselines); Normal baseline – the low-water line along the coast; Islands situated on atoll ( เกาะปะการัง ) or having fringing reef ( โขดหิน ) : the seaward low-water line of the reef Straight baselines – joining the appropriate points in drawing the baseline; not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations If a river flows directly into the sea, the baseline shall be a straight lines across the mouth of the river between points on the low-water line of its banks.
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Bays (Article 10) Not a mere curvature of the coast; a well-marked indentation and proportionate to the width of its mouth – and its land-locked water; use low-water; if the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance <24 nautical miles, the water enclosed shall be considered as ‘internal water’; If >24 nautical miles – a straight baseline shall be drawn within the bay; ‘historic bays’ are exempted from the above.
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Innocent Passage in the Territorial Sea: Ships of all States enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea; the coastal state shall not hamper the innocent passage of foreign ships; if the passage is not innocent, the coastal state may take the necessary steps to prevent passage; and may suspend temporarily; Innocent passage: 1. traversing the sea without entering internal water, 2. loading / unloading the ships Passage shall be continuous and expeditions. Passage is innocent as long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal state Submarines or underwater vehicles are required to navigate on the surface or to show their flag.
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 If the warship does not comply with the laws and regulations of the coastal state concerning passage, it may be asked to leave the TS immediately; the flag state shall bear international responsibility for any Contiguous Zone ( เขตติดต่อ ) it is the zone contiguous to its TS – the coastal state may exercise the control necessary to (1) prevent infringement of its customs etc., (2) punish infringement The CZ may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baseline.
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Archipelagic States ( รัฐหมู่เกาะ ) A group of islands, including parts of islands … which are so closely interrelated … form an intrinsic geographical, economic and political entity, or which historically have been regarded as such. -Draw straight archipelagic baselines – joining the outermost points; the length of such baselines shall not exceed 100 nautical miles … (Article 47) -Sovereignty extends to the water enclosed by the archipelagic baselines; -Right of innocent passage – by ships of all States … (Article 52); -Archipelagic sea lane passage – the exercise of the rights of navigation and overflight in the normal mode solely for the purpose of continuous, expeditious and unobstructed transit ….
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): เขตเศรษฐกิจจำเพาะ An area beyond and adjacent to the TS (Article 55); shall not exceed beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines (Article 58) The coastal State has (Article 56): -sovereign right for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources; -Jurisdiction to establish and use of artificial islands, marine scientific research; Other States’ rights: -navigate, overflight, lay of submarine cables and pipelines and other international lawful use … Jurisdiction in the EEZ – equity and in the light of all the relevant circumstances taking into account the respective international of the interests involved to the parties as well as the international community as a whole
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Artificial Islands, Installations and Structures in the EEZ (Article 60) -The coastal state has exclusive right to construct.. Artificial islands, installations; -The coastal state has jurisdiction with regard to customs, health, fiscal and safety and immigration laws ; -May establish reasonable safety zone around such artificial islands …, and shall not exceed 500 metres (Article 60(5)); -All ships must respect these safety zone; -theArtificial island … and safety zone may not be established where interference may be caused to the use of recognized sea lanes essential to international navigation; -They do not possess the status of islands – have no TS of their own (Article 60(8)) -The land-locked states shall have the right to participate, on an equitable basis, in the exploitation of an appropriate part of the surplus of the living resources of the EEZ of the coastal state (Article 69)
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Continental Shelf ( ไหล่ทวีป ) : Article 76-85 The continental shelf of the coastal state comprises of the sea bed and subsoil of the submarine area – a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baseline (Article 76); The coastal state exercise sovereign rights for the purpose of exploiting natural resources; All states are entitled to lay submarine cables and pipelines on the CS; Applied Article 60 (islands, installations and constructions) mutatis mutandis;
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 High Sea ( ทะเลหลวง ) : Articles 86- Parts of the sea that ae not included in the EEZ, TS or in the internal water, or in the archipelagic water (Article 86); Open to all states; the freedom shall be exercised with due regard for the interests of other states (Article 87); No states shall have sovereignty over the high sea (Article 89); ships have the nationality of the state whose flag they are entitled to fly (Article 91); ship shall sail under the flag of one state only (Article 92); ship may sail under the flag of the UN and its agencies (Article 93); Warship on the high sea has complete immunity from the jurisdiction of any state other than the flag state (Article 95); a collision – the penal or disciplinary charge against the master in the service must be by the authority of the flag state (Article 97); duty to give assistance – any person found at sea in danger of being loss, rescue persons in distress if informed (Article 98)
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Prohibition of the transport of slaves: Every state shall take effective measures to prevent and punish the transport of slaves that fly its flag, any slave on board any ship shall be free (Article 99); Piracy: All states shall co-operate to the fullest possible extent in the repression of piracy on the high sea (Article 100); piracy – any illegal acts of violence or detention committed for private ends; every state may seize a pirate ship or aircraft (Article 105); liability if not have adequate grounds for seizure (Article 106); the seizure must be carried out by warships or military aircraft, or other ship government authorized to do (Article 107); Unauthorized broadcasting from the high sea: All states shall co-operate in the suppression of unauthorized broadcasting – the transmission of sound radio intended for reception by the public contrary to international regulation (Article 109); jurisdiction of the court – flag state, state of the person’s nationality, state that can receive the transmission.
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Right to lay submarine cables and pipeline: All states are entitled to do so on the bed of the high sea beyond the Continental Shelf (Article 112); Conservation & Management of the Living Resources of the High Sea (Articles 116-120): All states have the right for their nationals to engage in fishing on the high sea; all states have the duty to take or co-operate for the conservation of the living resources;
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 Island An island is a naturally formed area of land, surrounded by water, which is above water at high tide (Article 121); it has TS, CZ and EEZ, and CS; Rock which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone (EEZ) or CS Right of Access of Land-Locked States to and from the Sea & Freedom of Transit Land-locked state – has no sea coast; transit state - situated between the land-locked state and the sea; Both states may agree to conclude agreement in relation to transport, pipelines and gas lines Land-locked state shall have the right of access to and from the sea, such as freedom of the high sea and the common heritage of mankind
Kanya Hirunwattanapong, Faculty of Law, CMU, November 2015 The Area The Area and its resources are the common heritage of mankind (Article 136). No state shall claim or exercise sovereignty or sovereign right over any part of the Area or its resources (Article 137(1)); all rights in the resources of the Area are vested in mankind as a whole, the Authority shall act on their behalf (Article 137(2));