เรื่องที่ ๕ การเริ่มต้นกระบวนการบังคับใช้ กฎหมายอาญา การค้นพบ การป้องกัน และ การแก้ไข เยียวยา Initiating the criminal justice process
การค้นหาการกระทำผิด Crime Detection Crime Detection, discovery, identification, and analysis of criminal evidence as a means of law enforcement. The responsibility of law enforcement agencies is to detect crimes, apprehend the perpetrators, and provide evidence that will convince judges and juries that the perpetrators are guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. To accomplish these aims a variety of methods are used, including reconstructing the crime, collecting physical clues, and interrogating suspects and witnesses.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created Sherlock Holmes, the detective protagonist of his series of detective stories, in 1887. A master sleuth, Sherlock Holmes solved his cases using deduction and logical reasoning, which are still very much a part of modern detective work.
History Early criminal investigation was a crude process, relying on eyewitnesses, inferences, and confessions extracted under torture. In early 19th-century France, for instance, the principal technique for catching thieves was obtaining evidence from informers who were also engaged in crime การสืบเสาะหาเบาะแสแห่งอาชญากรรมในครั้งแรกเริ่ม ถือเป็นส่วนหนึ่งของอาชญาวิทยา เพิ่งมีการแยก ออกมาเป็นศาสตร์ต่างหากในภายหลัง ในปัจจุบันกลับ เข้ามารวมกันอีกครั้งในฐานะที่เป็นส่วนของอาชญา ศาสตร์ ในครั้งแรกเริ่ม การสืบเสาะหาเบาะแสแห่งอาชญากรรม มุ่งที่ประจักษ์พยาน หรือพิธีกรรมพิสูจน์ เช่นการสาบาน ตัวหรือ พ่อมด หมอผี การทรมาน หรือการซัดทอด.
Scotland Yard The first major step in modern crime detection took place in Great Britain. In 1829 the Metropolitan Police Act established the basis for the world-famous Scotland Yard detective department, which investigated crimes in London and, occasionally, throughout the British Empire. The British example influenced the development of criminal investigation in the United States, where large cities patterned their police efforts after the successful model in England.
Scotland Yard Scotland Yard was the name of the first headquarters of London’s police force when the force was established in 1829. The building got its name because its rear entrance rested on the former site of a palace where visiting Scottish royalty stayed. The headquarters has since been moved.
Raid by FBI Agents Outfitted with body armor, assault rifles, and submachine guns, this team of FBI agents prepares to subdue a riot in a federal penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1987..
Fingerprint Analysis Storing fingerprint records in computers has made it much easier for the FBI to identify latent fingerprints—fingerprints left at the scene of a crime.
Types of Fingerprints Human fingerprint patterns fall into three main groups: whorls, loops, and arches. Loops are the most common type, accounting for about 65 percent of all fingerprints. Whorls account for 30 percent of fingerprints, and arches for 5 percent. Despite these broad patterns, each individual has a unique set of fingerprints, which can be used as a means of personal identification.
DNA Fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting can help investigators identify the suspect in a crime. The horizontal pattern of lines represents a person's genetic makeup. In the sample shown, suspect S2 matches the evidence, blood sample E(vs).
John Dillinger One of the most notorious gangsters of the 1930s, John Dillinger became the object of an intense manhunt following his stunning escape in March 1934 from a heavily guarded jail in Crown Point, Indiana. Left, Dillinger poses with a revolver and a submachine gun shortly after his escape. Right, a June 1934 reward poster offers $10,000 for Dillinger’s capture and $5,000 for information leading to his arrest. Dillinger was killed in Chicago in July 1934 by agents from the Bureau of Investigation, now known as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow During the early 1930s Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow killed 12 people during a crime spree across the southwestern United States. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), assisted by local police departments, traced the couple to Louisiana. In 1934 Bonnie and Clyde were killed near Arcadia, Louisiana, during an ambush by law enforcement officials.
surveillance One of the oldest ways of detecting criminal activity is through surveillance. This method is used when it is likely that a crime will take place at a specific location or when certain persons are suspected of criminal activity. The first situation usually is handled by fixed police observation known as a stakeout; the second circumstance may require mobile observation as well, perhaps on foot or by automobile. Some situations may call for aerial observation (using helicopters) or electronic procedures (using listening devices that monitor telephone lines).
Interrogation The information needed to further an investigation must be obtained from people who have some significant knowledge concerning the crime. Witnesses or victims are interviewed, and suspects are interrogated. Eyewitnesses to a crime are often asked to identify the perpetrator, although identification errors have prompted psychologists to explore the processes and pitfalls of memory, recall, and recognition.
records Criminal records represent an important data base for police activities throughout the U.S. and the world. Each time an arrest is made, the suspect is fingerprinted (see Fingerprinting) in multiple copies; a copy is sent to the state identification system and another goes to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI, in Washington, D.C. If the suspect is wanted by a law enforcement agency, a notice in the file of the National Crime Information Center of the FBI will apprise the interested agency of the status and location of that individual.
SCIENTIFIC CRIME INVESTIGATION In recent times, science has provided substantial aid to crime detection. Because anything in the physical universe has the potential of becoming an item of evidence in an investigation, a wide variety of procedures may be used in analyzing and interpreting evidence in a criminal case. These procedures include examining firearms, serological and toxicological tests, examining hairs and fibers, mineralogical and metallurgical tests, and document examination.
การแสวงหาหลักฐานทาง วิทยาศาสตร์ firearms, serological and toxicological tests, examining hairs and fibers, mineralogical and metallurgical tests, and document examination.
Prosecuting the Criminal Models of Prosecuting Process Inquisitorial Accusatorial