งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

หลักการทำ วิจัยให้สำเร็จ ศ. นพ. สัญญา สุข พณิชนันท์ ภาควิชาพยาธิวิทยา คณะแพทยศาสตร์ศิริราช พยาบาล มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล ปฐมนิเทศแพทย์ประจำบ้าน โดยราชวิทยาลัยพยาธิแพทย์แห่ง.

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งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "หลักการทำ วิจัยให้สำเร็จ ศ. นพ. สัญญา สุข พณิชนันท์ ภาควิชาพยาธิวิทยา คณะแพทยศาสตร์ศิริราช พยาบาล มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล ปฐมนิเทศแพทย์ประจำบ้าน โดยราชวิทยาลัยพยาธิแพทย์แห่ง."— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:

1 หลักการทำ วิจัยให้สำเร็จ ศ. นพ. สัญญา สุข พณิชนันท์ ภาควิชาพยาธิวิทยา คณะแพทยศาสตร์ศิริราช พยาบาล มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล ปฐมนิเทศแพทย์ประจำบ้าน โดยราชวิทยาลัยพยาธิแพทย์แห่ง ประเทศไทย ประจำปี 2554 ณ อาคารศูนย์การเรียนรู้ มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล อ. ศาลายา จ. นครปฐม วันเสาร์ที่ 8 ตุลาคม 2554

2 Pathology Research What?

3 Pathology Research Why?

4 Pathology Research When?

5 Pathology Research Where?

6 Pathology Research Who?

7 Pathology Research Whom?

8 Pathology Research How?

9 การทำวิจัย (Research) Definition of Research “A systematic investigation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” 45 CFR (d) CFR: Code of Federal Regulation Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP)

10 What kind of research? Ask yourself first how serious you are about the research you want to do. For promotion For better understanding of the disease – local, regional or global

11 One reason for doing research “5. Medical progress is based on research that ultimately must include studies involving human subjects…” “ ๕. ความก้าวหน้าทางการแพทย์ มีพื้นฐานจากการวิจัย ซึ่งใน ที่สุดแล้วต้องทำการวิจัยในคน...” Declaration of Helsinki (2008) by World Medical Association (WMA) [http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html] ปฏิญญาเฮลซิงกิ ( ๒๕๕๑ ) แปลโดย สัญญาและบุษรา สุขพณิชนันท์. เวชบันทึกศิริราช [http://www.si.mahidol.ac.th/Th/division/sirb/]

12 [http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10 policies/b3/index.html]

13 พฤษภาคม - สิงหาคม ๒๕๕๒, ปีที่ ๒, ฉบับที่ ๒ [ ]

14 Ethical Publication in DoH2008 “30. Authors, editors and publishers all have ethical obligations with regard to the publication of the results of research. Authors have a duty to make publicly available the results of their research on human subjects and are accountable for the completeness and accuracy of their reports. They should adhere to accepted guidelines for ethical reporting. Negative and inconclusive as well as positive results should be published or otherwise made publicly available. Sources of funding, institutional affiliations and conflicts of interest should be declared in the publication. Reports of research not in accordance with the principles of this Declaration should not be accepted for publication.” DoH2008 [http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html]

15 Ethical Publication in DoH2008 Authors, editors and publishers all have ethical obligations with regard to the publication of the results of research. Authors have a duty to make publicly available the results of their research on human subjects and are accountable for the completeness and accuracy of their reports. DoH2008 [http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html]

16 Ethical Publication in DoH2008 They should adhere to accepted guidelines for ethical reporting. Negative and inconclusive as well as positive results should be published or otherwise made publicly available. Sources of funding, institutional affiliations and conflicts of interest should be declared in the publication. DoH2008 [http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html]

17 Ethical Publication in DoH2008 Reports of research not in accordance with the principles of this Declaration should not be accepted for publication. DoH2008 [http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html]

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31 จรรยาบรรณนักวิจัย ๑.นักวิจัยต้องมีความซื่อสัตย์ต่อตนเอง และผู้อื่น ๒.นักวิจัยต้องตระหนักถึงพันธกรณีใน การทำวิจัยตามข้อตกลงที่ทำไว้กับ หน่วยงานที่สนับสนุนการวิจัยและต่อ หน่วยงานที่ตนสังกัด ๓.นักวิจัยต้องมีพื้นฐานความรู้ใน สาขาวิชาการที่ทำวิจัย ๔.นักวิจัยต้องมีความรับผิดชอบต่อสิ่งที่ ศึกษาวิจัย ไม่ว่าจะเป็นสิ่งที่มีชีวิต หรือไม่มีชีวิต [ คณะกรรมการวิจัยแห่งชาติ “ สภาวิจัยแห่งชาติ ” ๒๕๔๑ ]

32 จรรยาบรรณนักวิจัย ๕.นักวิจัยต้องเคารพศักดิ์ศรี และสิทธิ ของมนุษย์ที่ใช้เป็นตัวอย่างในการ วิจัย ๖.นักวิจัยต้องมีอิสระทางความคิด โดย ปราศจากอคติในทุกขั้นตอนของการ ทำวิจัย ๗.นักวิจัยพึงนำผลงานวิจัยไปใช้ ประโยชน์ในทางที่ชอบ ๘.นักวิจัยพึงเคารพความคิดเห็นทาง วิชาการของผู้อื่น ๙.นักวิจัยพึงมีความรับผิดชอบต่อสังคม ทุกระดับ [ คณะกรรมการวิจัยแห่งชาติ “ สภาวิจัยแห่งชาติ ” ๒๕๔๑ ]

33 กรุงเทพฯ : โรงพิมพ์แห่งจุฬาลงกรณ์ มหาวิทยาลัย, ๒๕๕๑

34 ศาสตราจารย์เกียรติ คุณ นายแพทย์ ประเสริฐ ทองเจริญ ที่ปรึกษา คณะ แพทยศาสตร์ศิริราช พยาบาล มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล ที่ปรึกษา กรมควบคุม โรค กระทรวง สาธารณสุข ราชบัณฑิต สำนัก วิทยาศาสตร์ ประเภท วิทยาศาสตร์ประยุกต์ สาขาแพทยศาสตร์ ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน บรรณาธิการวารสาร หลายฉบับ (193 หน้า )

35 Published in 1998 Total of 660 pages 1,670 Baht Cheryl Iverson, MA*(Chair) *MA: Master of Arts Published in 2007 Total of 1010 pages 1, Baht

36 Authorship 16 pages [http://www.icmje.org/]

37 Authorship “Authorship credit should be based on 1)substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data 2)drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content 3)final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3. ” [The Uniform Requirements. ICMJE, 2008]

38 Authorship “ ● Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship. ● All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed. ● Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.” [The Uniform Requirements. ICMJE, 2008]

39 Acknowledgments “Identification of individuals in an acknowledgment may imply their endorsement of the article’s content.” “Citing an individual’s name in a personal communication citation may carry the same implication.” So standard journals require written permission from any individual named in both situations.

40 Manuscript Format Just follow the instructions for authors in the journal you plan to submit your manuscript to.

41 Title Page A concise title, no more than 150 characters including spaces. A short running head, no more than 50 characters including spaces. Each author’s name followed by no more than two highest academic degrees. Institutional affiliations listed corresponding to the authors. The contact information of the corresponding author, including telephone, FAX, and address. Disclaimer (if any) Source of support (if any) Total word count for the text only Number of tables and illustrations [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

42 Conflict-of-Interest Notification Page Authors should state whether there is any potential conflict of interest or not. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

43 Abstract Total word count is not more than 250 words. The abstract should include Background/Objective, Materials & Methods, Results, and Conclusion, whenever possible. Registration number for the clinical trial (if applicable) at the end of the abstract (trial acronym followed by the registration number). Provide no more than 5 keywords. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

44 Introduction Provide concisely the background or context of the study. Do not provide any data or conclusion of the study being reported. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

45 Materials & Methods When the study is involved in human research subjects or materials obtained from human subjects or both, the authors should indicate that the study has been approved by the institutional research board (IRB) or institutional ethic committee (IEC). The approval number should be given. The conduct of study should follow the Declaration of Helsinki (revised in 2008). Details of the declaration can be found at [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

46 Materials & Methods (cont.) Describe the recruitment including inclusion and exclusion criteria, period of the study, location of the study, methods, and instruments (give the manufacturer name and address in parenthesis) used in adequate detail. Provide the references for the established methods. Describe briefly the previously published method that may not be well- known. Describe briefly the statistical methods and provide the computer software used. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

47 Results Describe properly the data in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat all the data already shown in the tables or illustrations. Summarize only the important data in text. Tables, illustrations (figures), and figure legends are provided in separate sections (see below). [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

48 Discussion Concentrate in the new or important data from the study. Compare briefly with the results from previous studies. Table may be used to ease the readers’ understanding. Do not repeat the data already present in the introduction or results. Avoid speculations that have not been tested. Benefits obtained from the study should be confirmed appropriately before claiming as such. Make a concise conclusion of the study at the end. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

49 Acknowledgments List the name of contributors that do not meet the criteria of authorship here. Financial and material support should be acknowledged as well. Written permission from persons to be acknowledged should be provided with the manuscript. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

50 References List only important references, in particular the key original ones, as the total word count also includes references. References should be numbered consecutively in the order that they first appear in the text, tables, and illustrations. Use arabic numbers in parentheses to indicate references. The authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references… [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

51 Tables Provide tables on a separate page. Good tables will present the data clearly and shorten the length of the text. Cite the tables in the text accordingly. Provide a brief title for each table… Only 3 horizontal lines are used in each table: above and below the first line of table (heading) and at the end of the table (above the footnotes of the table). Do not use inter- horizontal lines or vertical lines. Data from unpublished source requires written permission and acknowledgement for the source. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

52 Illustrations (Figures) Provide professionally drawn or photographed figures in digital files (JPEG format), no larger than 800 kB per file. Only symbols, arrows, numbers, internal scale, or letters are allowed to identify particular items in the figures. The descriptions, however, should be provided in a separate page as legends for illustrations (figure legends). [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

53 Illustrations (Figures) Written permission to use photograph of potentially identifiable person must be obtained from that person. The authors do not need to send the original written permission with the manuscript but they need to make a statement in the cover letter that they have already obtained such permission. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

54 Legends for illustrations (figure legends) Provide legends on a separate page. Brief title is needed. Describe symbols, arrows, numbers, internal scale, or letters present in the illustration clearly. Also provide the staining method or other special techniques applied in the photomicrograph. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

55 Units of measurement Use SI units unless it is not universally used. Normal value of each test should be provided in parentheses. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

56 Abbreviations Use universal abbreviations. Avoid using abbreviations in the title. Nonstandard abbreviations can be used after introduction of the full name followed by the first abbreviation in parentheses. [Instructions for Authors in Siriraj Medical Journal]

57 Scientific Misconduct “Research Misconduct” or “Fraud” Misrepresentation: Fabrication, Falsification, and Omission Misappropriation: Plagiarism and Breaches of Confidentiality Inappropriate Manipulation of Digital Images (Fraud: กลฉ้อฉล ; Falsification: การปลอมแปลง, การพิสูจน์ว่าเป็นเท็จ ; Omission: การละเว้น, การละเลย ; Plagiarism: การลอกเลียน วรรณกรรมหรือโจรกรรมทางวรรณกรรม ; breach: การฝ่าฝืน, การผิดสัญญา )

58 Research Misconduct (DHHS 2005) Fabrication = making up data or results & recording or reporting them Falsification = manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record Plagiarism = the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit [DHHS: US Department of Health and Human Services]

59 Definition of “Plagiarism” “The uncredited use (both intentional and unintentional) of someone else’s words or ideas.” [The OWL at Purdue

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61 [http://stang.sc.mahidol.ac.th/Plagiarism.htm]

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63 [http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/]

64 Plagiarism “In plagiarism, an author documents or reports ideas, words, data, or graphics, whether published or unpublished, of another as his or her own and without giving appropriate credit.” [cited from the Commission on Research Integrity. Integrity and Misconduct in Research. Washington, DC: Office of Research Integrity; 1995.]

65 Bad effects from Plagiarism Violate standards of honesty & collegial trust (May) violate copyright law

66 4 Types of Plagiarism “1. Direct plagiarism: Verbatim lifting of passages without enclosing the borrowed material in quotation marks and crediting the original author.”

67 (Ref. 1) A B C D E F (Ref. 2) REFERENCES 1) Author 1 et al. Journal 01. 2) Author 2 et al. Journal 02. Original Article by Author 3 et al. in Journal 03: Keywords, Train of Thought & Ref.

68 (Ref. 1) A B C D E F (Ref. 2) REFERENCES 1) Author 1 et al. Journal 01. 2) Author 2 et al. Journal 02. Direct Plagiarism by Author P: Note the same Keywords, Train of Thought & Ref. No Quotation mark! No creditation!

69 REFERENCES 1) Author 3 et al. Journal 03. Original Article by Author P quoting 2 sentences from the article by Author 3 et al. A B C D E F (Ref. 1) ” “ √ Appropriate Quotation mark & Creditation

70 4 Types of Plagiarism “2. Mosaic: Borrowing the ideas and opinions from an original source and a few verbatim words or phrases without crediting the original author. In this case, the plagiarist intertwines his or her own ideas and opinions with those of the original author, creating a “confused, plagiarized mass.”

71 (Ref. 1) A B C D E F (Ref. 2) REFERENCES 1) Author 1 et al. Journal 01. 2) Author 2 et al. Journal 02. Original Article by Author 3 et al. in Journal 03: Keywords, Train of Thought & Ref.

72 REFERENCES 1) Author 1 et al. Journal 01. 2) Author 2 et al. Journal 02. Mosaic Plagiarism by Author P: Note some Key- words left, similar Train of Thought & Ref. from article by Author 3 et al. No appropriate creditation! (Ref. 1) AC D F (Ref. 2)

73 4 Types of Plagiarism “3. Paraphrase: Restating a phrase or passage, providing the same meaning but in a different form without attribution to the original author.”

74 (Ref. 1) A B C D E F (Ref. 2) REFERENCES 1) Author 1 et al. Journal 01. 2) Author 2 et al. Journal 02. Original Article by Author 3 et al. in Journal 03: Keywords, Train of Thought & Ref.

75 REFERENCES 1) Author 1 et al. Journal 01. 2) Author 2 et al. Journal 02. Paraphrase by Author P: Keep the same meaning as those in the article by Author 3 et al. Change all Keywords but still traceable. 1 (A+B)2 (C) 4 (D) 5 (E) 7 (F) (Ref. 1 & 2) No appropriate creditation!

76 REFERENCES 1) Author 3 et al. Journal 03. Appropriate Paraphrase by Author P: Keep the same meaning as those in the article by Author 3 et al. Change all Keywords but still traceable. Give appropriate creditation to Author 3 et al. 1 (A+B)2 (C) 4 (D) 5 (E) 7 (F) (Ref. 1) √ Appropriate Creditation

77 4 Types of Plagiarism “4. Insufficient acknowledgment: Noting the original source of only part of what is borrowed or failing to cite the source material in a way that allows the reader to know what is original and what is borrowed.”

78 (Ref. 1) A B C D E F (Ref. 2) REFERENCES 1) Author 1 et al. Journal 01. 2) Author 2 et al. Journal 02. Original Article by Author 3 et al. in Journal 03: Keywords, Train of Thought & Ref.

79 REFERENCES 1) Author 3 et al. Journal 03. Insufficient Acknowledgment by Author P: Note the last sentence also cited from Author 3 et al. (Readers misunstand the originality.) (Ref. 1) 2 (A) 4 (B) 3 (C)1 (D) 8 (E) 6 (F)5 7 Insufficient creditation!

80 REFERENCES 1) Author 3 et al. Journal 03. Sufficient Acknowledgment by Author P: Give appropriate creditation to Author 3 et al. (Ref. 1) 2 (A) 4 (B) 3 (C)1 (D) 8 (E) 6 (F)5 7 √ Appropriate Creditation

81 “The common characteristic of these kinds of plagiarism is the failure to attribute words, ideas, or findings to their true authors, whether or not the original work has been published.” “Such failure to acknowledge a source properly may on occasion be caused by careless note taking or ignorance of the canons of research and authorship.”

82 How to avoid plagiarism “The best defense against allegations of plagiarism is careful note taking, record keeping, and documentation of all data observed and sources used.”

83 How to avoid plagiarism “Those who review manuscripts that are similar to their own unpublished work may be especially at risk of charges of plagiarism. Reviewers who foresee such a potential conflict of interest should consider returning the manu- script to the editor without reviewing it.”

84 Duplicate Publication “The simultaneous or subsequent reporting of essentially the same information, article, or major components of an article 2 or more times in 1 or more forms of media (either print or electronic format).” Self Plagiarism

85 Duplicate Reporting “Includes duplicate submission and may apply to both published and unpublished work (eg, 1 or more maunscripts not yet published but under consideration by another journal).”

86 Unethical! “Duplicate submission or publication is not necessarily unethical, but failure to disclose the existence of duplicate articles, manuscripts, or other related material to editors and readers (covert duplication) is unethical and may represent a violation of copyright law.”

87 Duplicate Publication : What a waste! “waste publishing resources (ie, those of editors, reviewers, and readers as well as journal pages), pollute the literature, result in double counting of data or inappropriate weighting of the results of a study and thereby distort the available evidence, cause problems for researchers and those who conduct systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and may damage the reputation of the authors.”

88 Secondary Publication “The subsequent republication, or simultaneous publication (sometimes called dual or parallel publication), of an article in 2 or more journals (in the same or another language) by mutual consent of the journal editors.”

89 Unethical Publication & Scientific Misconduct Editorial Policy & Procedures for Detecting & Handling Allegations of unethical publication & Scientific Misconduct Retractions, Expressions of Concern Allegations involving unresolved questions of scientific misconduct Allegation involving manuscripts under editorial consideration

90 Sukpanichnant 2010

91 Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Sukpanichnant 2010

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93 Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Sukpanichnant 2010

94 Example of Retraction Notice of Retraction: Plagiarism in “Effects of Low-Fat Diet on Risk of Breast Cancer” (J Med Res. 2005;242(1): ) To the Editor. – We regret that the first 3 paragraphs in the “Discussion” section of our article, “Effects of Low-Fat Diet on Risk of Breast Cancer,” 1 published in the January 3, 2005, issue of the Journal of Medical Research, were taken from another source without proper attribution.

95 Example of Retraction (cont.) We should have cited the following article as the original source of the information contained in those paragraphs: Scott RB. Low-fat diets and cancer risk. J Med Nutr Diet. 2002;20(8): We regret any problems our article 1 may have caused and we retract it from the literature. John Smith & Jane Doe Medical University, Chicago, Illinois 1. Smith J, Doe J. Effects of low-fat diet on risk of breast cancer. J Med Res. 2005;242(1):

96 The authors can check the retracted publication by typing “retracted publication” (no parenthesis when typed in search box) in PubMed for MEDLINE-indexed journals.

97

98 ศีล ๕ ( ละเว้นจากสิ่ง ต่อไปนี้ ) การฆ่าสัตว์ ( และทรมานสัตว์ ) การลักทรัพย์ ( และทรัพย์สิน ทางปัญญา ) การประพฤติผิดในกาม ( และ การล่วงเกินทางเพศ ) การพูดเท็จ ( ส่อเสียด ด่าทอ เพ้อเจ้อ ) การดื่มสุรา ( และการใช้สิ่งเสพ ติด )

99 มรรค ๘ สัมมาทิฏฐิ สัมมา สังกัปปะ สัมมาวาจา สัมมากัมมัน ตะ สัมมาอาชีวะ สัมมาวายาม ะ สัมมาสติ สัมมาสมาธิ

100 อิทธิบาท ๔ ฉันทะ วิริยะ จิตตะ วิมังสา

101 พรหมวิหาร ๔ เมตตา กรุณา มุทิตา อุเบกขา

102 จรรยาบรรณ หิริ โอตตัปปะ

103 พละ ๕ ศรัทธา ปัญญา สมาธิ วิริยะ สติ

104 อื่น ๆ Knowledge Management (KM) Routine to Research (R2R) Positive Thinking Now/Present Health – physical & mind 21 st Century Skills (3R 7C 2L)

105 3 R’s wRiting Reading aRithmatics (mathematics) 21 st Century Skills

106 7 C’s Creativity & Innovation Critical Thinking & Problem Solving Communication, Collaboration, Information, Media & Technology Cross-Cultural & Social Skills Competitive, Flexibility & Adaptability Competency, Initiative & Self Direction aCcountability & Productivity 21 st Century Skills

107 2 L’s Learning & Civic, Health, Environmental, Financial, Economic, Business, Entrepreneurial Literacy & Global Awareness Leadership and Responsibility

108 พึงดำรงชีวิตอยู่ด้วย ความไม่ประมาท

109 Good Luck with your scientific research! Sukpanichnant 2011


ดาวน์โหลด ppt หลักการทำ วิจัยให้สำเร็จ ศ. นพ. สัญญา สุข พณิชนันท์ ภาควิชาพยาธิวิทยา คณะแพทยศาสตร์ศิริราช พยาบาล มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล ปฐมนิเทศแพทย์ประจำบ้าน โดยราชวิทยาลัยพยาธิแพทย์แห่ง.

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