3KnowledgeInformation effective in action, information focused on results. (Drucker. P. , 1994)“Knowledge is a value asset”Knowledge is the only meaningful resource today. The traditional factors of production- land, labor, capital have not disappeared but they are secondary (Drucker. P. , 1993: post capitalist society)
4(Nonaka. I. and Nishiguchi. T. , 2001 ) KnowledgeKnowledge is the beliefs that guide organizational action(Nonaka. 1994)“A dynamic human process of justifying personal belief toward the ‘truth’ ”. - SECITwo kinds of knowledge – Explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge(Nonaka. I. and Nishiguchi. T. , 2001 )
5KnowledgeFrom a systems-engineering point of view ‘ knowledge is an in formation about information’(Schreiber et al., 2000)“Knowledge enables the user of information to make decision or learn something from the information , which has bee presented ” (Rhem.A.J., )Information in context to produce an actionable understanding. (Rumizen.M.C.,2002)
7Data Information Knowledge ข้อเท็จจริงที่ยังไม่ได้กลั่นกรองInformationข้อมูลที่เกิดจากการวิเคราะห์ กลั่นกรองประสบการณ์จริง ที่เกิดจากการได้ลงมือปฏิบัติ เป็นความเชื่อที่ได้รับการพิสูจน์แล้วโดยการทดลองทำแล้ว และจะยังคงเชื่อตราบเท่าที่ยังคิดว่ายังใช้ได้จริงKnowledge
8Data Information Knowledge Source: Dr. Nopasit Chakpitak
9Data Information Knowledge A restaurant sales order including two large burgers and two medium-sized vanilla milkshakesThe numbers indicating daily sales (in dollars, quantity, or percentage of sales ) of burgers and milkshakes . The manager can use this information to make decision s concerning prices and raw material.The daily sales of burgers can be used, along with other information (e.g. quantity of bread in inventory), to compute the amount of bread to buy. The relationship between the quantity of bread that should be ordered , the bread in inventory and the bread sold daily is the knowledge.Understanding this relationship is knowledge.
10Data, information และ knowledge ในบริบทของนักศึกษาแต่ละคน Color card
12Knowledge managementKM is an area in business administration that deal with how to leverage knowledge as a key asset and resource in modern organizations.Source: Schreiber et al., Knowledge engineering and management
13Knowledge managementMake an organization's knowledge store more accessible and usefulA business activity with two primary aspectsTreating business component of business activities as an explicit concern of strategy, policy, practice at all levels of organizationsMaking direct connection between organization's intellectual assets - explicit and tacit and positive business resultsConscious strategy of getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time and helping to share and put information into action to improve organization’s performance
14(Nonaka. I. and Nishiguchi. T. , 2001 ) Knowledge managementKnowledge management should be a dynamic management of the process of creating knowledge out of knowledge, not a static management of information or exist knowledge.(Nonaka. I. and Nishiguchi. T. , 2001 )
15C – MAP : Knowledge management Dr. Nopasit Chakpitak
16Knowledge managementSimply be defined as ‘ doing what is needed to get the most out of knowledge resources.Can be applied to individuals , but attracted the attention of organization.Is knowledge management for every body?Case study: John Smith ( Fernandez. I.B. et al.2004.p6)DiscussionSource: Fernandez. I.B. et al.2004.p6
17Force driving knowledge management KM is important for organizations because:Decision makers face pressure to make better and faster decisions in a high domain complexity and market volatilityEven thoughDecision makers may in fact lack of experience and the out come of decisions could have a considerable impact on the organization
18Knowledge management process Knowledge discoveryKnowledge captureKnowledge sharingKnowledge application
19Knowledge management process DiscoveryCombinationSocializationSharingSocializationExchangeApplicationDirectionRoutinesCaptureExternalizationInternalization
20Knowledge management process Knowledge Discovery : the development of new tacit or explicit knowledge from data and information or from the synthesis of prior knowledgeCombination – discovery the new explicit knowledgeMore complex or new explicit knowledge are created from multiple body of explicit knowledge through communication, integration and systemization – Proposal writing.Socialization - discovery the new tacit knowledgeThe synthesis tacit knowledge across individual through joint activities instead of written or verbal instruction
21Knowledge management process Knowledge capture : the process of retrieving either tacit or explicit knowledge that resides with in people, artifacts, or organizational entitiesExternalization – convert tacit knowledge to be explicit knowledge. Ex: consultant writing a document describe the lessons the team has learned about client company.Internalization - convert explicit knowledge to be tacit knowledge. Ex: new software consultant reads a book on innovative software development and learn from it.
22Knowledge management process Knowledge sharing : the process of tacit or explicit knowledge are shared to individuals.Socialization: sharing of tacit knowledgeExchange: sharing of explicit knowledge
23Knowledge management process Knowledge sharing : the process of tacit or explicit knowledge are shared to individuals.Effective transfer: to understand well enough to act on it or having ability to take action based on it.Share knowledge not recommendation based on knowledge – utilization of knowledgeKnowledge sharing take place across individual, groups, department, organization.
24Knowledge management process Knowledge application: The knowledge is used to guide decisions and actions.Knowledge contributes most org. performance when it is used to make decision and perform taskDirection : individual processing knowledge direct the action of another without transferring.Routines: utilization of knowledge embedded in procedure, rules, and norms that guide future behavior.
25SECI Model Socialization Externalization Internalization Combination DiscoveryCaptureSocializationExternalizationInternalizationCombinationExplicitTacit
26Knowledge management mechanism Organizational means used to promote KMSupported by KM infrastructureMay or may not utilize technologyLearning by doing, on the job training, face to face meeting …
28Knowledge management Technologies Today, knowledge is accumulated at an ever increase rate…….estimated that it is currently doubling every 18monthsHow does IT support KM?
29Knowledge management Technologies technology represents a highly visible and tangible solution.argument: a successful KM implementation does not rest on the deployment of a technology solution alone.research has revealed that the greatest difficulty in KM is ‘‘changing people’s behavior,’’ and the current biggest impediment to knowledge transfer is ‘‘culture’’.the key is: to understand how technology is most appropriately deployed and aligned to the knowledge activities in the organization.Source: (Davenport & Prusak, 1999; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Anand, Manz, & Glick, 1998).
30Knowledge management Systems KM systems utilize variety of KM mechanism and technology to support KM processKMS helpsto solve problems of individualsprovides a medium to foster discourses between people with different perspectives.
31The benefits of Knowledge systems? CategoryBenefitAnticipated benefitPerceived as actual benefitProductivityFaster decision –makingIncrease productivityEnhanced problem solvingSolve complex problemsReliabilityEquipment operationReduce downtime7568Knowledge preservationCapture scarce expertiseUse in remote locations1014Quality improvementIncrease quality of decisionsDealing with uncertainty2918TrainingEducation benefits1513Job enrichmentFlexibilityIntegrating knowledge of several expertsThe number represent frequency, number of time and itemsSource: Martin. et al. (1996) sited in Schreiber et al., Knowledge engineering and management
32The benefits of Knowledge systems? Top three degrees of anticipate benefitsFaster decision makingIncrease productivityIncrease quality of decision makingSource: Martin. et al. (1996) sited in Schreiber et al., Knowledge engineering and management
36Next: submit Assignment 1 What is the difference between information systems in general and KMS?What is the difference between KMS and specialized systems like organizational memory systems, knowledge based systems etc.?Are there any general requirements, a KMS should fulfill?Is it possible to provide a KMS with a generic body of knowledge that can be used in (almost) any company?Submit3 selected KMS Cases