Knowledge “Knowledge is a value asset” Knowledge is the only meaningful resource today. The traditional factors of production- land, labor, capital have not disappeared but they are secondary (Drucker. P., 1993: post capitalist society) Information effective in action, information focused on results. (Drucker. P., 1994)
Knowledge “A dynamic human process of justifying personal belief toward the ‘truth’ ”. - SECI Two kinds of knowledge – Explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge (Nonaka. I. and Nishiguchi. T., 2001 ) Knowledge is the beliefs that guide organizational action (Nonaka )
Knowledge “Knowledge enables the user of information to make decision or learn something from the information, which has bee presented ” (Rhem.A.J., 2006 ) Information in context to produce an actionable understanding. (Rumizen.M.C.,2002) From a systems-engineering point of view ‘ knowledge is an in formation about information’ (Schreiber et al., 2000)
KnowledgeInformationData Data Information Knowledge
Data Information Knowledge ข้อเท็จจริงที่ยังไม่ได้กลั่นกรอง ข้อมูลที่เกิดจากการวิเคราะห์ กลั่นกรอง ประสบการณ์จริง ที่เกิดจากการได้ลงมือ ปฏิบัติ เป็นความเชื่อที่ได้รับการพิสูจน์ แล้วโดยการทดลองทำแล้ว และจะยังคง เชื่อตราบเท่าที่ยังคิดว่ายังใช้ได้จริง Data Information Knowledge
KnowledgeInformationData Source: Dr. Nopasit Chakpitak Data Information Knowledge
A restaurant sales order including two large burgers and two medium-sized vanilla milkshakes The numbers indicating daily sales (in dollars, quantity, or percentage of sales ) of burgers and milkshakes. The manager can use this information to make decision s concerning prices and raw material. The daily sales of burgers can be used, along with other information (e.g. quantity of bread in inventory), to compute the amount of bread to buy. The relationship between the quantity of bread that should be ordered, the bread in inventory and the bread sold daily is the knowledge. Understanding this relationship is knowledge.
Data, information และ knowledge ในบริบทของนักศึกษาแต่ละคน Color card
Why knowledge management?
Knowledge management KM is an area in business administration that deal with how to leverage knowledge as a key asset and resource in modern organizations. Source: Schreiber et al., Knowledge engineering and management
Knowledge management 1.Make an organization's knowledge store more accessible and useful 2.A business activity with two primary aspects Treating business component of business activities as an explicit concern of strategy, policy, practice at all levels of organizations Making direct connection between organization's intellectual assets - explicit and tacit and positive business results 3.Conscious strategy of getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time and helping to share and put information into action to improve organization’s performance
Knowledge management Knowledge management should be a dynamic management of the process of creating knowledge out of knowledge, not a static management of information or exist knowledge. (Nonaka. I. and Nishiguchi. T., 2001 )
Knowledge management C – MAP : Knowledge management Dr. Nopasit Chakpitak
Knowledge management Simply be defined as ‘ doing what is needed to get the most out of knowledge resources. Can be applied to individuals, but attracted the attention of organization. Is knowledge management for every body? Case study: John Smith ( Fernandez. I.B. et al.2004.p6) Source: Fernandez. I.B. et al.2004.p6 Discussion
Force driving knowledge management KM is important for organizations because: Decision makers face pressure to make better and faster decisions in a high domain complexity and market volatility Decision makers may in fact lack of experience and the out come of decisions could have a considerable impact on the organization Even though
Knowledge management process Discovery Combination Socialization Capture Externalization Internalization Sharing Socialization Exchange Application Direction Routines
Knowledge management process Knowledge Discovery : the development of new tacit or explicit knowledge from data and information or from the synthesis of prior knowledge Combination – discovery the new explicit knowledge More complex or new explicit knowledge are created from multiple body of explicit knowledge through communication, integration and systemization – Proposal writing. Socialization - discovery the new tacit knowledge The synthesis tacit knowledge across individual through joint activities instead of written or verbal instruction
Knowledge management process Knowledge capture : the process of retrieving either tacit or explicit knowledge that resides with in people, artifacts, or organizational entities Externalization – convert tacit knowledge to be explicit knowledge. Ex: consultant writing a document describe the lessons the team has learned about client company. Internalization - convert explicit knowledge to be tacit knowledge. Ex: new software consultant reads a book on innovative software development and learn from it.
Knowledge management process Knowledge sharing : the process of tacit or explicit knowledge are shared to individuals. Socialization: sharing of tacit knowledge Exchange: sharing of explicit knowledge
Knowledge management process Knowledge sharing : the process of tacit or explicit knowledge are shared to individuals. 1.Effective transfer: to understand well enough to act on it or having ability to take action based on it. 2.Share knowledge not recommendation based on knowledge – utilization of knowledge 3.Knowledge sharing take place across individual, groups, department, organization.
Knowledge management process Knowledge application: The knowledge is used to guide decisions and actions. Knowledge contributes most org. performance when it is used to make decision and perform task Direction : individual processing knowledge direct the action of another without transferring. Routines: utilization of knowledge embedded in procedure, rules, and norms that guide future behavior.
Knowledge management mechanism Organizational means used to promote KM Supported by KM infrastructure May or may not utilize technology Learning by doing, on the job training, face to face meeting …
Knowledge management mechanism Knowledge management mechanism :case study Discussion
Knowledge management Techno l ogies Today, knowledge is accumulated at an ever increase rate…….estimated that it is currently doubling every 18months How does IT support KM?
Knowledge management Techno l ogies technology represents a highly visible and tangible solution. argument: a successful KM implementation does not rest on the deployment of a technology solution alone. research has revealed that the greatest difficulty in KM is ‘‘changing people’s behavior,’’ and the current biggest impediment to knowledge transfer is ‘‘culture’’. the key is: to understand how technology is most appropriately deployed and aligned to the knowledge activities in the organization. Source: (Davenport & Prusak, 1999; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Anand, Manz, & Glick, 1998).
Knowledge management Systems KM systems utilize variety of KM mechanism and technology to support KM process KMS helps to solve problems of individuals provides a medium to foster discourses between people with different perspectives.
The benefits of Knowledge systems? CategoryBenefitAnticipated benefit Perceived as actual benefit ProductivityFaster decision –making Increase productivity Enhanced problem solving Solve complex problems Reliability Equipment operation Reduce downtime 7568 Knowledge preservation Capture scarce expertise Use in remote locations 1014 Quality improvement Increase quality of decisions Dealing with uncertainty 2918 TrainingEducation benefits1513 Job enrichment Flexibility Integrating knowledge of several experts 1015 Source: Martin. et al. (1996) sited in Schreiber et al., Knowledge engineering and management The number represent frequency, number of time and items
Top three degrees of anticipate benefits 1. Faster decision making 2. Increase productivity 3. Increase quality of decision making The benefits of Knowledge systems? Source: Martin. et al. (1996) sited in Schreiber et al., Knowledge engineering and management
Next: submit Assignment 1 1. What is the difference between information systems in general and KMS? 2. What is the difference between KMS and specialized systems like organizational memory systems, knowledge based systems etc.? 3. Are there any general requirements, a KMS should fulfill? 4. Is it possible to provide a KMS with a generic body of knowledge that can be used in (almost) any company? Submit3 selected KMS Cases