งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

Strategic Information system MIT-M Chiangmai University IS requirement ครั้งที่ 6 วันที่ 22 กุมภาพันธ์ 2557.

งานนำเสนอที่คล้ายกัน


งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "Strategic Information system MIT-M Chiangmai University IS requirement ครั้งที่ 6 วันที่ 22 กุมภาพันธ์ 2557."— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:

1 Strategic Information system MIT-M Chiangmai University IS requirement ครั้งที่ 6 วันที่ 22 กุมภาพันธ์ 2557

2 Strategic Planning for Information Resources Business strategy Information resources and IS strategy Influence on Business Strategy Influence on Information Resources 2-2

3 Business Information Applications IT Infrastructure The Business layer reflects a view of what the business must do in the future in terms of its organisation structure & business processes The Information represents what must be “known” to effectively execute the processes The Applications serve to support process functionality and bring information to the process The IT Infrastructure enables access to information and execution of activities กลยุทธ์ธุรกิจ กับ กลยุทธ์ สารสนเทศ Business strategy Information resources and IS strategy มีผลกระทบต่อ

4 ความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างแผนกลยุทธ์ธุรกิจ และ แผนกลยุทธ์สารสนเทศและเทคโนโลยี สารสนเทศ Business Strategy Business Decisions Objectives & Direction Change ผลกระทบและ โอกาส IT IS Strategy Business Based Demand Oriented Application Focused IS/IT ที่ต้องการ การสนับสนุน IT Strategy Activity Based Supply Oriented Technology Focused วิธีการนำ IT มาใช้ การเป็นโครง สร้างพื้นฐาน การกำหนดความ ต้องการ และลำดับ ความสำคัญ การให้เป็นแนวทาง ทิศทางธุรกิจ

5 Demand /Supply and Innovation Planning Practices Business Strategic Plan (Demand) (Strategic intention) IT Capability (Potential for new business directions) IT (Strategy for the Supply of IT) Business Units and Processes (Strategic Agenda for use of IT) Innovation Demand/ Supply

6 Strategic Alignment Model Strategic Fit Internal External Functional Integration Business IT Internal Business External Business Internal IT External IT Each block is characterized by different factors.

7 Mini-Case Example: Strategic Alignment at Medtronic, Inc.

8 IT Master Plan องค์กร ระบบสารสนเทศ เทคโนโลยีสารสนเทศ วิสัยทัศน์องค์กร พันธกิจขององค์กร Project Plan IT Management Strategy Budget IT Architecture Business System Planning Business Challenges CSF + Problem IS Projects กลยุทธ์ขององค์กร กลยุทธ์ทางธุรกิจ วิสัยทัศน์ IS พันธกิจของ IS กลยุทธ์ของ IS ระบบสารสนเทศ เชิงกลยุทธ์ IS/IT Trend Organization - Structure - Resources Organization - Structure - Resources Part A Part B Part C

9 Why we exist? Who are you? Change environment Disruptive Emerging New realityStrategic alignment model Business + IT Strategy Strategic Information System Digital age Personnel mastery System thinking Strategic thinkingGeneral environment Scenario Opportunities/ Threat External driving forces Geographic environment Internal driving forces Resources based Strength ?Weakness Business OpportunitiesTOWS matrix Life cycle / Opportunities driven Strategic Planning What business to be in? GE matrix (market/Business strength) Core Business (Product /Service) Mission statement Strategic Direction Where to go? Strategic issue / Critical success Challenge + Mission statementVision statement How to get there ? Strategic Positioning Business concept Business Model Product Positioning Product Portfolio BCG + Product/Market Matrix Business StrategyHow to compete ? Generic model5 Forces’+ Value chainBusiness Process Model IS Strategy Implication for IS/IT Strategy IS Model IS Requirement IS Process / Data/Functional model IT Strategy IT Project IS/IT Project management IT innovation IT application / Architecture / technology /Infrastructure Direction for business Need and Priorities How can be delivered Support business Infrastructure /service IT requirement

10 มอบหมายงาน งานกลุ่ม ไปทบทวนปรับงานที่ทำตามแนวทาง ลำดับหัวข้อที่กำหนด งานกรณีศึกษา ให้ไปค้นคว้ากรณีศึกษาบริษัท ที่ใกล้เคียงกับ Dummy Project ของกลุ่มว่าเขา เอา IS/IT อะไรมาใช้ในการสร้างความได้เปรียบ ในการแข่งขันของบริษัท ส่ง 22 กุมภาพันธ์ ก่อน 16 น. มอบหมายเพิ่ม Business Process model และ IS Process Model

11 หัวข้อวันนี้ คำถามเชิงกลยุทธ์ เตือนประโยชน์จากการค้นคว้าเดี่ยว ที่ต้องรวมสรุปเอกสาร งานค้นทั้งหมดส่ง งานกลุ่ม วิเคราะห์ 5 Forces’ Value chain วันนี้มาดูการวิเคราะห์การนำเอา IS/IT มาใช้กับกลยุทธ์ธุรกิจ คือการนำมาใช้กับวิเคราะห์ 5 Forces’ Value chain ในแง่ ของ IS/IT เขียน Business Process และ IS process มอบหมายงานกรณีศึกษา

12 กรอบแนวทางการทำงาน Dummy Project 1. จุดมุ่งหมาย ปรัชญา ของการทำธุรกิจ 2. วิเคราะห์สภาพแวดล้อมทั่วไป PESTLE สรุปภาพอนาคตทั้ง ด้านธุรกิจและด้าน IT ใน 5 ปีข้างหน้า และระบุ O/T ออกมา อย่างน้อย 3-5 ปัจจัย 3. วิเคราะห์สภาพแวดล้อมภายใน ( เชียงใหม่ ) ว่ามีฐานทรัพยากร อะไรที่สำคัญ และระบุ S/W ออกมาอย่างน้อย 3-5 ปัจจัย 4. สร้างกลยุทธ์การหาธุรกิจที่น่าสนใจเข้าไปทำด้วย TOWS Matrix 5. คัดเลือกธุรกิจที่น่าสนใจและตรงกับจุดมุ่งหมาย ปรัชญาการทำ ธุรกิจของเรานำมาวิเคราะห์ด้วย GE Matrix โดยนำเอาวงจร ชีวิตสินค้า วงจรชีวิตธุรกิจและวงจรชีวิตของเทคโนโลยีมา ประกอบการพิจารณาด้วย 6. ระบุธุรกิจที่สนใจออกมา 1 ธุรกิจ พร้อมทั้งระบุตัวสินค้าหลัก / บริการหลักให้ชัดเจน เขียนออกมาเป็น Mission statement มี รายละเอียดดังนี้ ปรัชญาธุรกิจ ตัวสินค้า / บริการ ตลาด เป้าหมาย ลูกค้าเป้าหมาย Supplier คู่แข่งขัน

13 กรอบแนวทางการทำงาน Dummy Project ต่อ 7. หาข้อท้าทายที่จะรับมือปัจจัยแรงกดดันจากภาพ อนาคต ประมาณอย่างน้อย 4-5 ข้อ ท้าทายขึ้นไป 8. นำเอาข้อท้าทายกับ Mission statement มากำหนด วิสัยทัศน์ Vision Statement 9. วิเคราะห์แนวคิดธุรกิจ Business Concept ระบุให้ ชัดเจนถึงคุณค่าที่ได้รับ Value Proposition นำมาเขียนเป็น Business Model Canvas 10. จาก Mission statement และ Business model นำมากำหนดการวางตำแหน่งธุรกิจ ด้วย Matrix ตัวสินค้ากับลูกค้า ทุกอย่าง บางอย่าง ทุกคน บางคน 11. นำไปวิเคราะห์ด้วย BCG และ Product /Market Matrix เขียนลูกศรเชื่อมโยง

14 กรอบแนวทางการทำงาน Dummy Project ต่อ 12. วิเคราะห์ 5 Forces สภาพแวดล้อมการแข่งขัน ในธุรกิจที่เลือกมา ระบุปัจจัยของแรงกดดันที่มี ผลกระทบต่อการแข่งขัน มาประมาณ 4-6 แรง มาเป็น Key issue ดูว่าแต่ละ Key issue นั้น IT มาช่วยในการสร้างขีดความสามารถในการ แข่งขันได้หรือไม่ อย่างไร 13. นำเอา Key issue แต่ละตัวมาหา ปัจจัยสำเร็จที่ สำคัญ Critical Success Factor ใน Primary / Secondary Activities ใน Business Value chain แล้วดูว่า activities นั้น เอา IT มาช่วยสร้าง คุณค่าให้กับกระบวนการ ธุรกิจของเราได้อย่างไรบ้างโดยต้อง สอดคล้องกับกลยุทธ์การแข่งขัน Generic Model ที่ไปตอบ Business Concept ที่วางไว้ 14. นำเอาผลที่ได้ในแต่ละ activities มาบูรณา การ เป็นภาพรวม IS/IT ของ Value chain

15 กรอบแนวทางการทำงาน Dummy Project ต่อ 15. นำเอาหลักการของ Business Process model มาเขียน Business Process โดยมองตามกระบวนการตั้งแต่ความต้องการ ของลูกค้าที่รับเข้าจนถึงผล สุดท้ายความพึงพอใจที่ลูกค้าได้รับ 16. เขียน Process และ Data ออกมา เป็น Process /Entity Matrix 16. นำเอาหลักการของ IS Process Model มา เขียน IS Process ที่สอดรับกับ กระบวนการธุรกิจในข้อ เขียน IS Function และเขียน IS /Entity Matrix ออกมา

16 Business StrategyHow to compete ? Generic model5 Forces’+ Value chainBusiness Process Model Threat of New Entrants Bargaining Power of Suppliers Bargaining Power of Buyers Relative Power of Unions, Governments, etc. Potential Entrants Threat of Substitute Products or Services Industry Competitors Rivalry Among Existing Firms Other Stakeholders Buyers Substitutes Suppliers Competitive Advantage TargetMarket Industry Niche Uniqueness Perceived by the Customer by the Customer Low Cost Position Differentiation Low Cost Differentiation Focus Differentiation Focus Cost Focus Cost Focus

17 Chapter 1317 Porter’s Competitive Forces Model

18 Key issues What are the key forces at work in our competitive environment? Are there underlying forces (SLEPT analysis?) contributing to this? Is it likely that these forces will change? If so how and why? How do our competitors stand? How do WE stand? What can be done to influence these forces?

19 Critical (Key) Success Factors CSFs are aspects of strategy where you must provide better value and beat the competition Competences needed in activities which underpin each critical success factor Performance standards for these determine how competitive advantage will be achieved Advantage lost by competitor performance & CSFs changing

20 Potential IS Contributions Infrastructure - Planning Models Human Resource - Skills & Experience Databases Technology - Computer-Aided Design Procurement - On-line parts ordering Elapsed Time - Value added time cost Automated Warehouse Inbound Logistics Automated Check Clearing Operations Point of Sale Scanners Outbound Logistics E-Commerce Marketing & Sales Remote Equipment Servicing Service Support Activities Primary Activities

21 Page 21 Inbound Logistics Inbound Logistics Highly Efficient Systems to Link Suppliers’ Products with the Firm’s Production Processes Located in Close Proximity with Suppliers

22 Page 22 Technological Development Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure Procurement Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Service MARGIN Relatively Few Management Layers to Reduce Overhead Effective Training Programs to Improve Worker Efficiency and Effectiveness Timing of Asset Purchases Efficient Plant Scale to Minimize Manufacturing Costs Selection of Low Cost Transport Carriers Delivery Schedule that Reduces Costs Products Priced to Generate Sales Volume Small, Highly Trained Sales Force Investments in Technology in order to Reduce Costs Associated with Manufacturing Processes Frequent Evaluation Processes to Monitor Suppliers’ Performances Policy Choice of Plant Technology Organizational Learning Efficient Order Sizes Operations Efficient Plant Scale to Minimize Mfg. Costs Timing of Asset Purchases Policy Choice of Plant Technology Organizational Learning

23 Page 23 Technological Development Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure Procurement Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service MARGIN Selection of Low Cost Transport Carriers Delivery Schedule that Reduces Costs National Scale Advertising Products Priced to Generate Sales Volume Small, Highly Trained Sales Force Effective Product Installations to Reduce Frequency and Severity of Recalls Frequent Evaluation Processes to Monitor Suppliers’ Performances Efficient Order Sizes Interrelationships with Sister Units Outbound Logistics Outbound Logistics Selection of Low Cost Transport Carriers Delivery Schedule that Reduces Costs Efficient Order Sizes Interrelationships with Sister Units

24 Page 24 Technological Development Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure Procurement Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service MARGIN Marketing & Sales Global Scale Advertising Products Priced to Generate Sales Volume Small, Highly Trained Sales Force Marketing & Sales

25 Page 25 Technological Development Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure Procurement Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service MARGIN Service Effective Product Installations to Reduce Recalls Effective Product Installations to Reduce Recalls

26 Page 26 Technological Development Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure Procurement Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service MARGIN Procurement Systems and Procedures to Find the Lowest Cost Products to Purchase Raw Materials Frequent Evaluation Processes to Monitor Suppliers’ Performances Procurement

27 Page 27 Technological Development Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure Procurement Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service MARGIN Technological Development Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Technologies Investments in Technology in order to Reduce Costs Associated with Manufacturing Processes

28 Page 28 Technological Development Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure Procurement Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service MARGIN Human Resource Management Consistent Policies to Reduce Turnover Costs Effective Training Programs to Improve Worker Efficiency and Effectiveness

29 Page 29 Support Activities Technological Development Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure Procurement Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service MARGIN Firm Infrastructure Cost Effective MIS Systems Relatively Few Management Layers to Reduce Overhead Simplified Planning Practices to Reduce Planning Costs

30 © Macehiter Ward-Dutton ors.com 30 IT-business alignment: multiple angles IT Business Change implications Change capabilities, limitations Investment in capability Delivery of value It’s not just about “building stuff that the business will use”

31 The IS/IT Strategic Model 31 The building blocks of the strategy formulation and planning framework

32 B2 Value Chain Procurement Research & Development Technology Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure (Accounting, Finance, Administrator) ปัจจัยรับเข้า พันธมิตร เครือข่าย เตรียมกิจกรรม เรียนรู้และสวน สนุก แสดง กิจกรรมและ เรียนรู้ ตลาด/ ขาย บริการ Input Business partner Input Business partner Service delivery Service delivery Sale Service Process Preparation Service Process Preparation Customer Development Quality Control Service After sale Service After sale

33 © Macehiter Ward-Dutton 2005www.mwdadvisors.com Business process Applications Data The challenge Activities, processes The business The real world doesn’t “decompose” nicely – and IT isn’t just about things you build in-house

34 The Strategic Alignment Model

35 Components of Strategic Alignment Model (Henderson & Venkatraman)

36 I/T Strategy I/T Infrastructure Business Strategy Organization Infrastructure Combination of: I/T Infrastructure Strategy Perspective I/T Organizational Infrastructure Perspective Organization Strategy Fusion

37 Business & IT – Strategic Alignment 7 Business Strategy Growth & Customers Market & Competition Operational Efficiency Performance Analysis & Decision Support IT Strategy Platforms Budget & TCO Vendors Initiatives & Projects Resources & Skills

38 IS Application Portfolio High Potential Strategic Key OperationalSupport Applications which are critical to sustaining future business strategy Applications on which the organisation currently depends for success Applications which may be of important in achieving future success Applications which are valuable but not critical for success Developed from Ward Fig., 1.8 which is sourced from McFarlan

39 The Context for IS/IT Strategy: External Context

40 24 Alignment – Breakdown & Translation (EXAMPLE) No.Strategic Business Objective GoalsIT Initiative / Solution 1Profitable GrowthIncreased Market Share *Awareness *Coverage CRM – Pre-Sales, Marketing & Sales Analytics Increased ProfitabilityCRM – Gross Profit Confirmation for incentives Reduce Errors via CRM product configurator rules Business Performance Transparency Enhanced analysis & reporting capabilities (BI / Pro-forma reporting prior to quote approval) 2Cost ReductionBusiness Transaction Efficiency SAP Dealer Portal: *Order & Vehicle Mgmt. life-cycle CRM: Streamlined quoting and transition to order management *DBMS Integration *Offline Productivity *TMQS *CRMToday Shared Services IT Shared Services Utilize Global Licensing Balanced IT Resource Model (in-house vs. consulting) Standard IT Application Platform Consolidation of customer and partner websites onto single Enterprise Portal platform 3Mergers & AcquisitionsStandardized Processes & Flexible IT Platform Expandable and open (integration) technology platform

41 Critical Success Factors B3.1 Critical Success Factors InputBusinesspartnerInputBusinesspartner Process and / Service preparation Process and / Service preparationServiceDeliveryServiceDeliveryMarking & Sales Marking Service After sale Service Procurement Research & Development Technology Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure (Accounting, Finance, Administrator)

42 Value Chain Analysis Assessing the PRIMARY Activities in the Value Chain ( from Table 4-1) Inbound Logistics Materials control system Inventory control system Raw material handling and warehousing Operations Equipment comparison to competitors Plant layout Production control system Level of automation in production processes

43 Value Chain Analysis Assessing the PRIMARY Activities in the Value Chain ( continued ) ( from Table 4-1) Outbound Logistics Timeliness and efficiency of finished products delivery Warehousing of finished products Marketing and Sales Marketing research Sales promotions and advertising Alternative distribution channels Competency and motivation of sales force Organization’s image of quality Organization’s reputation Brand loyalty of customers Domination of various market segments

44 Value Chain Analysis Assessing the PRIMARY Activities in the Value Chain ( continued ) ( from Table 4-1) Customer Service Customer input for product improvements Handling of customer complaints Warranty and guarantee policies Employee training in customer education & service issues Replacement parts and services

45 Value Chain Analysis Assessing the SUPPORT Activities in the Value Chain ( from Table 4-2) Procurement Alternate sources for obtaining needed resources Timeliness of resources procurement Procurement of large capital expenditure resources Lease-versus-purchase decisions Long-term relationships with reliable suppliers Technological Development R&D activities in product and process innovations Relationship between R&D and other departments Meeting deadlines in technological development activities Quality of labs and other research facilities Qualifications of lab technicians and scientists Creativity and innovation in organizational culture

46 Value Chain Analysis Assessing the SUPPORT Activities in the Value Chain ( continued ) ( from Table 4-2) Human Resource Management Recruiting, selecting, orienting, and training employees Employee promotion policies Reward systems to motivate and challenge employees Absenteeism and turnover Union-organization relations Employee participation in professional organizations Employee motivation, job commitment, and satisfaction

47 Value Chain Analysis Assessing the SUPPORT Activities in the Value Chain ( continued ) ( from Table 4-2) Firm Infrastructure Identification of external opportunities and threats Accomplishing goals with strategic planning system Coordination and integration of value chain activities Low-cost capital expenditures & working capital funds IS support for strategic and operational decisions Relationships with stakeholders Public image as a responsible corporate citizen

48 Example Value Chain Uses of information systems to add value Inbound Logistics OperationsOutbound Logistics Sales & Marketing Service Product R&D, Technology, and System Development Human Resource Management General Administration Electronic Data Interchange Link between Suppliers and Dealers Website with Online Ordering, etc Project Management Software Accounting/ Financial Decision Support Software Customer Service Response System Computer Aided Manufacturing Computer Aided Software Engineering

49 Admin. & Mng. :Decrease reporting & administrating tasks Human Resources: Work force planning Technology: POS, ATM Procurement: Electronic Ordering System InboundLogisticsOperations Outbound Logistics Sales & Marketing Service -Electronic Ordering System - Increasing Selling Space -POS-ATM - - Home Delivery - - WEB Site - - Customer Database - -The Sears Charge Card - Repair Services MIS-Text Book pg.50 Support activities Primary activities

50

51

52

53 Critical Success Factors B3.1 Critical Success Factors Learning Center InputBusinesspartnerInputBusinesspartner Process and / Service preparation Process and / Service preparationServiceDeliveryServiceDeliveryMarking & Sales Marking Service After sale Service Procurement Research & Development Technology Human Resource Management Firm Infrastructure (Accounting, Finance, Administrator) Learning Technology (E-tracking) Learning Technology (E-tracking) Knowledge (KMS) Knowledge transfer (e-book/e-learning)

54 B4 IS/IT Strategies and IS/IT Project IS Strategy 1: พัฒนา KM / E-learning Objective 1: เพื่อให้มีการสร้างฐานองค์ความรู้และถ่ายทอดองค์ความรู้ IS/IT Projects Business Benefit Knowledge Base Management System องค์ความรู้ขององค์กร E-Book/E-Learning เกิดการถ่ายทอดความรู้สู่ชมชนโดย สามารถเรียนรู้ด้วยตัวเองได้ E-Trackingบริหารจัดการข้อมูลสัตว์

55 Business Vision Business Vision Strategic Opportun- ities Strategic Opportun- ities Gap Assess- ment Gap Assess- ment Long-Range Position Needs Long-Range Position Needs Business/IT Strategies Business/IT Strategies Investment Plans Investment Plans Technology Implementation Plans Technology Implementation Plans Organization Transformation Plans Organization Transformation Plans Technology Platform Technology Platform Data Resources Data Resources Application Portfolio Application Portfolio IT Organ- ization IT Organ- ization Best Practices Best Practices Re- engineer Re- engineer Specific Needs Specific Needs Existing Capabil- ities Existing Capabil- ities Customer Needs Customer Needs Partners Needs Partners Needs Develop Strategies Develop Strategies Design IT Arch- itecture Design IT Arch- itecture Develop Tactics Develop Tactics Create Vision Create Vision Determine Drivers Determine Drivers Assess IT Architecture Information Systems Planning

56 Business Process Modelling What is a business process – It is the way a company handles a business request, eg. a loan request in a bank, or an incoming order in a shipping company. It is nothing concrete, it is the way people and systems interact to handle a business request. What is a model of a business process – An abstraction of the way people an systems interact to handle a business request described in some kind of language, eg. UML Activity diagrams. – A simplified view of the complex reality – Externalization and formalization of knowledge and expertise within applications and minds.

57 Business Process Modelling Real business process Model of business process

58 Slide 58 DFD

59 IT support for business processes Business process types System types Collaborative Adhoc Production Administrative Business value Repetition

60 IT support for business processes Building blocks in a workflow Collect info Asses Risk Request approval Reject Approve Activities Control flow Amount >10.000? Otherwise Risk low? Request approved? Otherwise Conditions Age: 36 Amount: Yearly income: Data

61 IT support for business processes Architecture of a Workflow management System workflow engineadministrator workflow definition toolanalysis tools in-basket application environment WFS DBS EDI process definition resource classification simulation resources cases

62 IT support for business processes Runtime Websphere Application Server 5 Enterprise BPE Container Process instance EJB ContainerWEB Container WSIF

63 Development Process Process developer Takes the makroflow and transforms it into “code”, eg. BPEL Business analyst Defines the AsIs, ToBe and the makroflow IT Architect Ensures the makroflow conforms to the IT infrastructure Enriches the makroflow with information about the IT infrastructure Defines service interfaces Service developer Develops implementations to the specified service interfaces

64 Development Process AS ISTO BE Makroflow (PIM) Makroflow(PSM) Service interfaces BPEL process(es)Service impl. Transform Extend Specificate Higher abstraction

65 65 What is process mapping? Process mapping is a technique of diagrammatical modelling. The diagram represents a series of processes and how they are related. Process mapping provides a representation of who does what and in what order.

66 66 Why and when is process mapping used? It is used for: understanding the current processes clarifying responsibilities identifying process inefficiencies designing new procedures training Process mapping helps to clarify the steps involved in a particular process.

67 67 How to produce a process map Consult with the experts. These are the people managing and working with the process. Identify the boundaries. Where does the process begin? where does it end? Identify the participants. What roles are involved in the processes? Hand draw the process in front of the expert, getting then to confirm the steps. Identify the steps. What is done first? What is done next? By who? Identify the decision points. What are the alternatives? What determines which alternative is chosen? Draw an initial process flow. Draw and label the swim lanes (see next slide for details) using standard symbols. Check for completeness. Are all participants represented? Are all processes shown? Are there any alternatives that have not been considered? Refine and finalise. Review with the experts to ensure completeness.

68 68 Draw and label the swim lanes Employee Supervisor Administration The swim lanes represent the area of involvement of each participant who has a role in the processes being mapped. The participant may be an individual, a team, a department or an organisation.

69 69 Add in the process flows Employee Supervisor Administration Starting at top left with the start symbol. Draw processes along the swim lane, and use arrows to represent the sequence. Each process is given a number, and starts with a verb. 1.1 Fill out expense form 1.2 Submit expense form

70 70 Swap lanes and enter decision points Employee Supervisor Administration When a process is performed by a different participant switch lanes. If the next step depends on a decision show this as in the example above, labelling the alternatives and showing the steps that follow. 1.1 Fill out expense form 1.2 Submit expense form 1.3 Receive expense form 1.5 Submit authorised expense form 1.4 Expenses Valid? notification to employee Yes No

71 71 Complete the process map Remove any unused swim lanes. Make sure there is one start point and all flows have an end point. Check that all decision points have all options labelled and have flow arrows to the next step. Review with participants for verification. An example of a completed process map is shown on the next slide.

72 72 Employee Supervisor Administration 1.1 Fill out expense form 1.2 Submit expense form 1.3 Receive expense form 1.4 Expenses Valid? No Yes 1.5 Submit authorised expense form 1.6 Receive expense form 1.7 Log expense form 1.8 Make payment notification to employee notification to employee m m m m m m sol M = manual sol Sol = facilitated by solution Business process 1 – Process expense claim

73 Data Flow Diagrams Decomposing Data Flow Diagrams

74 Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today From a business perspective, information systems are part of a series of value-adding activities for acquiring, transforming, and distributing information that managers can use to improve decision making, enhance organizational performance, and, ultimately, increase firm profitability. Figure 1-7 The Business Information Value Chain

75 75 Diagram Layering and Process Refinement Context-level diagram Level 1 diagram Process Specification

76 Processes and the organization


ดาวน์โหลด ppt Strategic Information system MIT-M Chiangmai University IS requirement ครั้งที่ 6 วันที่ 22 กุมภาพันธ์ 2557.

งานนำเสนอที่คล้ายกัน


Ads by Google