วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) Source:
วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) The Initial Planning At this stage the ship owner will start planning for the new ship involving naval architects for the design. A list of preferred suppliers is established based on technology, quality and previous experience (Makers List). When requesting a quotation a ship broker may be involved Source:
วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) Ordering Ordering of modern vessels requires huge amount of capital (>$ 120 million) which means that the shipowner needs to secure ship financing. A negotiation between ship owner and ship yard takes place and it may involve a ship broker to work through the contract supporting the process. Once the contract is signed, engine builders & equipment manufacturers will be involved. At this stage ship owner and ship yard makers lists will be discussed and it will be decided on which equipment makers that will be invited to bid. Source:
วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) Ship Building 1. Signing of Contract - When signing the contract a ceremony usually will be held at the shipyard and this is a starting point for the shipyard to begin its process for building the ship. Normally the first payment is done when the contract is signed. The ship is also officially given a hull number and an IMO number which is unique identity that will follow the ship through out its lifetime. 2. Production Design – The production design organizes the design information in the detailed plans into respective component information. The production design enables the field staff to meticulously control a large amount of components on site. 3. Material and Equipment Purchase - At this stage yards starts purchase all material and equipment need to complete the vessel. Since a tremendous volume of materials need to be ordered to build a ship, it is vital to manage and supervise the delivery dates of those materials so that the procurement is timely and accurate. Source:
วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) 4. Production Plan – The production plan has a critical impact on manufacturing efficiency due to the enormous amount of components and the large number of workers involved on the job site. It is vital, therefore, to plan thoroughly so as to control and supervise the flow of materials, work volume, job assignments and subsequent progress of the shipbuilding process. 5. Steel Cutting – Steel plates are being cut in to the parts that will form the hull and deck sections of the ship. The process of heating and bending a steel plate into curved shapes is of great importance in shipbuilding, and requires sophisticated skill and technique. Normally second payment will take place at this stage. 6. Assembly and Mounting of Ship Sections – The cut steel is assembled into smaller blocks that in turn are assembled into larger sections that mounted together to finally become a complete ship. Source:
วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) 7. Launching – When all the blocks are mounted and jointed, launching is the next stage. This is one of the most thrilling moments for all involved with the shipbuilding process. Third payment will normally take place during launching. 8. Finishing of the Vessel – After launching the vessel is finished up at the quay. Starting with finishing work of accommodation and control sections, every equipment and instrument is checked and re-examined in practice. 9. Sea Trial – At sea trial the ship and ship equipment performance is tested and the result is kept as a performance record of the vessel. Source:
Ship Launching Launching m/v 'Gerarda‘ How to use Ship Launching Air Bags XM
วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) 10. Delivery – A new ship is born. After the delivery ceremony, the captain, chief engineer and crew embark for the ship’s maiden voyage. Final payment is done at delivery. 11. Warranty - Warranty period of a new ship is usually 12 – 24 months depending on the contract. Source:
วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) Ship Operation Modern ship operation is a big and sophisticated process that involves a number of people at authorities and different companies. During this period of the ships life it will generate money for the owner who will get his return on the investment. Source:
วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) Ship recycling After 25 – 30 years of service or when repairs and retrofitting cannot be financial justified the ship is recycled. Normally the ship owner sells the ship to a ship scrap yard for demolition. At the yard all the steel and some of the equipment is reused or sold in the secondhand market. For safety, health and environmental issues in the past the international Maritime Organization (IMO) has set up new rules for the process. Source:
โดยปกติ สัญญาเช่าเรือจะมีรายละเอียด หลักดังนี้ Loading cargo การบรรทุกสินค้า Voyage การเดินทางในทะเล Unloading การขนถ่ายสินค้า Freight ค่าระวางเรือ Bill of Lading ใบตราส่งสินค้า
สัญญาเช่าเรือดโดยหลัก Bareboat charter or demise charter การเช่าเรือ เปลือยเปล่า Voyage charter การเช่าเรือรายเที่ยว Contract of Affreightment charter Time charter การเช่าเรือเป็นระยะเวลา
Bareboat charter or demise charter is an arrangement for the hiring of a vessel whereby no administration or technical maintenance is included as part of the agreement. The charterer obtains possession and full control of the vessel along with the legal and financial responsibility for it. The charterer pays for all operating expenses, including fuel, crew, port expenses and P&I and hull insurance.
Demise charter In commercial demise chartering, the charter period may last for many years; and may end with the charterer acquiring title (ownership) of the ship. In this case, a demise charter is a form of hire- purchase from the owners, who may well have been the shipbuilders. Demise chartering is common for tankers and bulk-carriers.
A Voyage charter is the hiring of a vessel and crew for a voyage between a load port and a discharge port. The charterer pays the vessel owner on a per-ton or lump- sum basis. The owner pays the port costs), fuel costs and crew costs. The payment for the use of the vessel is known as freight. A voyage charter specifies a period, known as laytime, for loading and unloading the cargo. If laytime is exceeded, the charterer must pay demurrage. If laytime is saved, the charter party may require the shipowner to pay despatch to the charterer.
A Voyage charter -Contract of Affreightment is a contract similar to a voyage charter, but ship-owner undertakes to carry a number of cargoes within a specified period of time on a specified route. Agreed frequency of cargoes may require more than one ship.
Time charter is the hiring of a vessel for a specific period of time; the owner still manages the vessel but the charterer selects the ports and directs the vessel where to go. The charterer pays for all fuel the vessel consumes, port charges, commissions, and a daily hire to the owner of the vessel. A trip time charter is a comparatively short time charter agreed for a specified route only (as opposed to the standard time charter where charterer is free to employ the vessel within agreed trading areas).
Ship Ship owner Chartering Charterer Creditor or damage parties Maritime liens Right to claim Maritime liens and Charterer
Voyage Charter Nautical operation Commercial operation Ship owner
Voyage Charter เพื่อขนส่งสินค้าจากท่าเรือแห่งหนึ่งไปยังท่าเรืออีกแห่งหนึ่ง และสัญญาจะสิ้นสุดเมื่อสิ้นสุดการเดินทางนั้น Ship owner has nautical operation and commercial operation Ship owner’s duties Prepare a seaworthy ship จัดหาเรือที่อยู่ในสภาพที่สามารถ เดินทะเลได้อย่างปลอดภัย พร้อมจัดหากัปตันเรือและลูกเรือ จ่ายค่าจ้าง Pay all costs จ่ายค่าใช้จ่ายทุกอย่าง เช่น ค่าน้ามัน ค่าเสบียง อาหาร น้าจืด ค่านาร่อง ค่าภาระ
Voyage Charter Charterer’s duty Pay the charter and loading and unloading cost จ่ายค่าชาเตอร์เรือ, ค่าขนของขึ้นลงจากเรือ Pay Demurrage อาจต้องจ่ายค่าเรือเสียเวลา ในกรณีที่ผู้ เช่าล่าช้าเกินกว่าระยะเวลาปลอดค่าเช่าเรือ