2 วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) A ship chandler is a retail dealer who specializes in supplies or equipment of ship.Source:
3 วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) The Initial PlanningAt this stage the ship owner will start planning for the new ship involving naval architects for the design.A list of preferred suppliers is established based on technology, quality and previous experience (Makers List).When requesting a quotation a ship broker may be involvedSource:
4 วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) OrderingOrdering of modern vessels requires huge amount of capital (>$ 120 million) which means that the shipowner needs to secure ship financing.A negotiation between ship owner and ship yard takes place and it may involve a ship broker to work through the contract supporting the process.Once the contract is signed, engine builders & equipment manufacturers will be involved.At this stage ship owner and ship yard makers lists will be discussed and it will be decided on which equipment makers that will be invited to bid.Source:
5 วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) Ship Building1. Signing of Contract - When signing the contract a ceremony usually will be held at the shipyard and this is a starting point for the shipyard to begin its process for building the ship. Normally the first payment is done when the contract is signed. The ship is also officially given a hull number and an IMO number which is unique identity that will follow the ship through out its lifetime.2. Production Design – The production design organizes the design information in the detailed plans into respective component information. The production design enables the field staff to meticulously control a large amount of components on site.3. Material and Equipment Purchase - At this stage yards starts purchase all material and equipment need to complete the vessel. Since a tremendous volume of materials need to be ordered to build a ship, it is vital to manage and supervise the delivery dates of those materials so that the procurement is timely and accurate.Source:
6 วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) 4. Production Plan – The production plan has a critical impact on manufacturing efficiency due to the enormous amount of components and the large number of workers involved on the job site. It is vital, therefore, to plan thoroughly so as to control and supervise the flow of materials, work volume, job assignments and subsequent progress of the shipbuilding process.5. Steel Cutting – Steel plates are being cut in to the parts that will form the hull and deck sections of the ship. The process of heating and bending a steel plate into curved shapes is of great importance in shipbuilding, and requires sophisticated skill and technique. Normally second payment will take place at this stage.6. Assembly and Mounting of Ship Sections – The cut steel is assembled into smaller blocks that in turn are assembled into larger sections that mounted together to finally become a complete ship.Source:
8 วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) 7. Launching – When all the blocks are mounted and jointed, launching is the next stage. This is one of the most thrilling moments for all involved with the shipbuilding process. Third payment will normally take place during launching.8. Finishing of the Vessel – After launching the vessel is finished up at the quay. Starting with finishing work of accommodation and control sections, every equipment and instrument is checked and re-examined in practice.9. Sea Trial – At sea trial the ship and ship equipment performance is tested and the result is kept as a performance record of the vessel.Source:
9 Ship LaunchingLaunching m/v 'Gerarda‘How to use Ship Launching Air Bags
10 วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) 10. Delivery – A new ship is born. After the delivery ceremony, the captain, chief engineer and crew embark for the ship’s maiden voyage. Final payment is done at delivery.11. Warranty - Warranty period of a new ship is usually 12 – 24 months depending on the contract.Source:
11 วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) Ship OperationModern ship operation is a big and sophisticated process that involves a number of people at authorities and different companies.During this period of the ships life it will generate money for the owner who will get his return on the investment.Source:
12 วงจรของเรือเดินทะเล (Life Cycle of a Ship ) Ship recyclingAfter 25 – 30 years of service or when repairs and retrofitting cannot be financial justified the ship is recycled. Normally the ship owner sells the ship to a ship scrap yard for demolition. At the yard all the steel and some of the equipment is reused or sold in the secondhand market. For safety, health and environmental issues in the past the international Maritime Organization (IMO) has set up new rules for the process.Source:
16 Ship owner Chartering Charterer Ship Chartering is an activity within the shipping industry. In some cases a charterer may own cargo and employ a shipbroker to find a ship to deliver the cargo for a certain price, called freight rate. Freight rates may be on a per-ton basis over a certain route (e.g. for iron ore between Brazil and China), in Worldscale points (in case of oil tankers) or alternatively may be expressed in terms of a total sum - normally in U.S. dollars - per day for the agreed duration of the charter.A charterer may also be a party without a cargo who takes a vessel on charter for a specified period from the owner and then trades the ship to carry cargoes at a profit above the hire rate, or even makes a profit in a rising market by re-letting the ship out to other charterers.Depending on the type of ship and the type of charter, normally a standard contract form called a charter party is used to record the exact rate, duration and terms agreed between the shipowner and the charterer.
19 สัญญาเช่าเรือดโดยหลัก Bareboat charter or demise charter การเช่าเรือเปลือยเปล่าVoyage charter การเช่าเรือรายเที่ยวContract of Affreightment charterTime charter การเช่าเรือเป็นระยะเวลา
20 Bareboat charter or demise charter is an arrangement for the hiring of a vessel whereby no administration or technical maintenance is included as part of the agreement.The charterer obtains possession and full control of the vessel along with the legal and financial responsibility for it. The charterer pays for all operating expenses, including fuel, crew, port expenses and P&I and hull insurance.
21 Demise charterIn commercial demise chartering, the charter period may last for many years; and may end with the charterer acquiring title (ownership) of the ship. In this case, a demise charter is a form of hire-purchase from the owners, who may well have been the shipbuilders. Demise chartering is common for tankers and bulk-carriers.
22 A Voyage charter is the hiring of a vessel and crew for a voyage between a load port and a discharge port. The charterer pays the vessel owner on a per-ton or lump-sum basis.The owner pays the port costs), fuel costs and crew costs. The payment for the use of the vessel is known as freight.A voyage charter specifies a period, known as laytime, for loading and unloading the cargo. If laytime is exceeded, the charterer must pay demurrage. If laytime is saved, the charter party may require the shipowner to pay despatch to the charterer.Demurrage, ค่าเสียเวลาของเรือ, ค่าเสียเวลาของเรือ หรือค่าเสียเวลาของตู้สินค้าที่ไม่สามารถนำออกจากท่าได้ตามเวลาที่กำหนด
23 A Voyage charter -Contract of Affreightment is a contract similar to a voyage charter, but ship-owner undertakes to carry a number of cargoes within a specified period of time on a specified route. Agreed frequency of cargoes may require more than one ship.
24 Time charter is the hiring of a vessel for a specific period of time; the owner still manages the vessel but the charterer selects the ports and directs the vessel where to go. The charterer pays for all fuel the vessel consumes, port charges, commissions, and a daily hire to the owner of the vessel.A trip time charter is a comparatively short time charter agreed for a specified route only (as opposed to the standard time charter where charterer is free to employ the vessel within agreed trading areas).
25 Maritime liens and Charterer Ship ownerChartererShipCharteringRight to claimMaritime liensCreditor or damage partiesChartering is an activity within the shipping industry. In some cases a charterer may own cargo and employ a shipbroker to find a ship to deliver the cargo for a certain price, called freight rate. Freight rates may be on a per-ton basis over a certain route (e.g. for iron ore between Brazil and China), in Worldscale points (in case of oil tankers) or alternatively may be expressed in terms of a total sum - normally in U.S. dollars - per day for the agreed duration of the charter.A charterer may also be a party without a cargo who takes a vessel on charter for a specified period from the owner and then trades the ship to carry cargoes at a profit above the hire rate, or even makes a profit in a rising market by re-letting the ship out to other charterers.Depending on the type of ship and the type of charter, normally a standard contract form called a charter party is used to record the exact rate, duration and terms agreed between the shipowner and the charterer.
30 Voyage Charterเพื่อขนส่งสินค้าจากท่าเรือแห่งหนึ่งไปยังท่าเรืออีกแห่งหนึ่งและสัญญาจะสิ้นสุดเมื่อสิ้นสุดการเดินทางนั้นShip owner has nautical operation and commercial operationShip owner’s dutiesPrepare a seaworthy ship จัดหาเรือที่อยู่ในสภาพที่สามารถเดินทะเลได้อย่างปลอดภัย พร้อมจัดหากัปตันเรือและลูกเรือ จ่ายค่าจ้างPay all costs จ่ายค่าใช้จ่ายทุกอย่าง เช่น ค่าน้ามัน ค่าเสบียงอาหาร น้าจืด ค่านาร่อง ค่าภาระ
31 Voyage Charter Charterer’s duty Pay the charter and loading and unloading costจ่ายค่าชาเตอร์เรือ, ค่าขนของขึ้นลงจากเรือPay Demurrage อาจต้องจ่ายค่าเรือเสียเวลา ในกรณีที่ผู้เช่าล่าช้าเกินกว่าระยะเวลาปลอดค่าเช่าเรือ
32 DemurrageLaytime คือ ระยะเวลาที่ตกลงให้ผู้ชาเตอร์ขนของขึ้นหรือลงจากเรืออาจแบ่งออกเป็น 2 ประเภท คือLaytime for loading = ระยะเวลาที่ตกลงกันให้ผู้ชาเตอร์ขนของลงเรือLaytime for unloading = ระยะเวลาที่ตกลงกันให้ผู้ชาเตอร์ขนของขึ้นจากเรือ