6 Encephalitis outbreak world wide West Nile encephalitis in New York (1999; 56 confirm cases/ 7 death), Russia (1999; 84 confirm cases/ 40 death).Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia ( Sep 1998-May 1999; 265 cases/ 105 death).Japanese encephalitis outbreak in Uttar Pradesh, India in 2005; 1,145 cases/ 296 death.
8 Japanese Encephalitis Flavivirus related to St. Louis encephalitisMost important cause of arboviral encephalitis worldwide, with over 45,000 cases reported annuallyEffected most in childrenTransmitted by culex mosquito, which breeds in rice fieldsMosquitoes become infected by feeding on domestic pigs and wild birds infected with Japanese encephalitis virus. Infected mosquitoes transmit virus to humans and animals during the feeding process.Incubation period: 5-15 days.
19 Major Arboviruses That Cause Encephalitis FlaviviridaeJapanese encephalitisSt. Louis encephalitisWest NileTogaviridaeEastern equine encephalitisWestern equine encephalitisBunyaviridaeLa Crosse encephalitis
21 Human Avian influenza situation world wide 2003 -2007, status at Jun 15,2007
22 Human Avian influenza situation in world wide 1 Jan 2007 - Jun 15,2007
23 Avian influenza situation in poultry and wild birds, 2003 - 2007
24 Avian influenza situation among poultry and wild birds, 1 Jan – 18 Jun, 2007
25 Description of Human AI cases, Thailand (25 cases) Rapid Test for Flu A in confirmed H5 human cases: 1 of 17 tested case was positiveOseltamivir treatment: 14 of 25 cases were given, 5 of them survived.Started median: 7.5 days after onset (1-28 days)Survivors: 6 days after onset (3-9 days)Non-survivors: 7.5 days after onset (1-28 days)
27 History of Japanese Encephalitis 1800s – recognized in Japan1924 – Japan epidemic cases, 3797 deaths1935 – virus isolated in brain of Japanese patient who died of encephalitis1938 – virus isolated from Culex mosquitoes in Japan1948 – Japan outbreak1949 – Korea outbreak1966 – China outbreakToday – extremely prevalent in South East Asia. 30,000-50,000 cases reported each year.