5Elemental Composition of the Human Body MagnesiumElemental Composition of the Human BodyMagnesium is found in small amount in the human bodyElement% of total atomsHOCNCaPClKSNaMg6322.214.171.124.310.220.080.060.050.030.01(http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/magnesium.asp#h2)
6Magnesium Approximately 50% of total body magnesium is found in bone. The other half is found predominantly inside cells of body tissues and organs.Only 1% of magnesium is found in blood(http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/magnesium.asp#h2)
7The function of Magnesium Magnesium has positive chargeMagnesium has many necessary function in cellsCo-factor in many basic cellular function especially in process of energy productionMagnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body
8The function of Magnesium regulate blood sugar levelspromotes normal blood pressureto be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesisMaintain normal muscle and nerve functionkeeps heart rhythm steadysupports a healthy immune systemkeeps bones strong.
9Magnesium Magnesium is absorbed in the small intestines. Magnesium is excreted through the kidneys
10Sources of Magnesium Green vegetables spinach are good sources of magnesium because the center of the chlorophyll molecule (which gives green vegetables their color) contains magnesium.Some legumes (beans and peas), nuts and seedswhole grains, unrefined grains are also good sources of magnesium
12DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)The RDA recommends the average daily intake that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in each age and gender group
13DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes) Adequate Intakes (AI)An AI is set when there is insufficient scientific data available to establish a RDA for specific age/gender groups.AIs meet or exceed the amount needed to maintain a nutritional state of adequacy in nearly all members of a specific age and gender group
14DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)UL is the maximum daily intake unlikely to result in adverse health effects.
15Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for magnesium for children and adults Age (years)Male (mg/day)Female (mg/day)Pregnancy (mg/day)Lactation (mg/day)1-380N/A4-81309-1324014-1841036040019-3031035031+420320
16Causes of Magnesium Deficiency Magnesium is absorbed in the intestines and then transported through the blood to cells and tissues.Approximately one-third to one-half of dietary magnesium is absorbed into the bodyGastrointestinal disorders impair absorptionCrohn's disease can limit the body's ability to absorb magnesium.Chronic or excessive vomiting and diarrhea may also result in magnesium depletion
17signs and symptoms of magnesium deficiency loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weakness.As magnesium deficiency worsens,numbness, tingling, muscle contractions and cramps, seizures, personality changes, abnormal heart rhythms, and coronary spasms can occurSevere magnesium deficiency can result in low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia).Magnesium deficiency is also associated with low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia)
18Who may need extra magnesium? specific health problempoorly-controlled diabetespersons with alcoholismcondition limits magnesium absorptionIndividuals with chronic malabsorptive problems such asCrohn's disease, gluten sensitive enteropathy, regional enteritis, and intestinal surgery may lose magnesium through diarrhea and fat malabsorption
19Who may need extra magnesium? Older adults are at increased risk for magnesium deficiency.The and National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys suggest that older adults have lower dietary intakes of magnesium than younger adultsFord ES and Mokdad AH. Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of U.S. adults. J Nutr. 2003;133:Bialostosky K, et al., Dietary intake of macronutrients, micronutrients and other dietary constituents: United States Vital Heath Stat. 11(245) ed: National Center for Health Statistics, 2002:168.
20Magnesium and osteoporosis Bone health is supported by many factorsmost notably calcium and vitamin Dsome evidence suggests that magnesium deficiency may be an additional risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosisSeveral human studies have suggested that magnesium supplementation may improve bone mineral densityInstitute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 1999
21Magnesium and osteoporosis magnesium deficiency alters calcium metabolism and the hormones that regulate calcium1In a study of older adults, a greater magnesium intake maintained bone mineral density to a greater degree than a lower magnesium intake2Elisaf M, Milionis H, Siamopoulos K. Hypomagnesemic hypokalemia and hypocalcemia: Clinical and laboratory characteristics. Mineral Electrolyte Metab 1997;23:Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69(4):
22ConclusionMagnesium is very important in older adults to maintain many functionsMagnesium deficiency usually found in poor controlled DM, alcoholism, chronic malabsorptive problems, ect.magnesium supplementation may improve bone mineral density and prevent osteoporosis
23ConclusionCalvin-plus contain Magnesium 40 mg (~ 10% of RDA)
26What is copper?copper is a trace mineral that plays an important role in our metabolism, it allows many critical enzymes to function properly.the total amount of copper in the body is only mgCopper stored primarily in the liver, with lesser amounts found in the brain, heart, kidney, and muscles
27The function of copper?Copper is an essential component of many enzymes.Copper plays a role in a wide range of physiological processes includingiron utilization,elimination of free radicals,development of bone and connective tissue,production of the skin and hair pigment called melanin.
28Iron UtilizationApproximately 90% of the copper in the blood is incorporated into a compound called ceruloplasmin, which is a transport protein responsible for carrying copper to tissues that need the mineral.ceruloplasmin also acts as an enzyme, catalyzing the oxidation of iron.
29Iron UtilizationThe oxidation of iron by ceruloplasmin is necessary for iron to be bound to its transport protein (called transferrin) so that it can be carried to tissues where it is needed.Iron deficiency anemias may be a symptom of copper deficiency.
30Elimination of Free Radicals Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a copper-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the removal of superoxide radicals from the body.Superoxide radicals are generatedduring normal metabolismwhite blood cells attack invading bacteria and viruses (a process called phagocytosis).If not eliminated quickly, superoxide radicals cause damage to cell membranes
31Elimination of Free Radicals When copper is not present in sufficient quantities, the activity of superoxide dismutase is diminishedThe damage to cell membranes caused by superoxide radicals is increased
32Development of Bone & Connective Tissue Copper is also a component of lysyl oxidase, an enzyme that participates in the synthesis of collagen and elastin
33Melanin ProductionTyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme, converts tyrosine to melanin, which is the pigment that gives hair and skin its color.
34The symptoms of copper deficiency iron deficiency anemiaruptured blood vesselsosteoporosiselevated LDL cholesterol and reduced HDL cholesterol levelsincreased susceptibility to infections due to poor immune functionloss of pigment in the hair and skinweakness, fatigue, breathing difficulties
35The risk factors of copper deficiency ? most Americans consume less than recommended amounts of copper in their dietCertain medical conditions result in decreased absorption of copper and may increase the risk of developing a copper deficiencychronic diarrheaceliac sprueCrohn's diseaseCeliac Disease DefinedWhat is Celiac Disease?Celiac disease (CD) is a genetic disorder. In people with CD, eating certain types of protein, called gluten, sets off an autoimmune response that causes damage to the small intestine. This, in turn, causes the small intestine to lose its ability to absorb the nutrients found in food, leading to malnutrition and a variety of other complications. The offending protein, gluten, is found in wheat, barley, rye, and to a lesser extent, oats (WBRO). Related proteins are found in triticale, spelt, kamut. Refer to grains and flours Glossary for a more extensive list of both safe and offending grains. Celiac Disease is:a genetic, inheritable disease.linked to genetically transmitted histocompatibility cell antigens (HLA DR3-DQ2, DR5/7 DQ2, and DR4-DQ8).COMMON. Approximately 1 in 133 people have CD, however, only about 3% of these have been diagnosed. This means that there are over 2.1 million undiagnosed people with celiac disease in the United States.characterized by damage to the mucosal lining of the small intestine which is known as villous atrophy.responsible for the malabsorption of nutrients resulting in malnutrition.linked to skin blisters known as dermatitis herpetiformis (DH).not age-dependent. It may become active at any age.Celiac Disease is NOT: simply a food allergy.an idiosyncratic reaction to food proteins (mediated by IgE).typified by a rapid histamine-type reaction (such as bronchospasm, urticaria, etc.).
36The risk factors of copper deficiency ? copper requires sufficient stomach acid for absorption, so if you consume antacids regularly you may increase your risk of developing a copper deficiency.Celiac Disease DefinedWhat is Celiac Disease?Celiac disease (CD) is a genetic disorder. In people with CD, eating certain types of protein, called gluten, sets off an autoimmune response that causes damage to the small intestine. This, in turn, causes the small intestine to lose its ability to absorb the nutrients found in food, leading to malnutrition and a variety of other complications. The offending protein, gluten, is found in wheat, barley, rye, and to a lesser extent, oats (WBRO). Related proteins are found in triticale, spelt, kamut. Refer to grains and flours Glossary for a more extensive list of both safe and offending grains. Celiac Disease is:a genetic, inheritable disease.linked to genetically transmitted histocompatibility cell antigens (HLA DR3-DQ2, DR5/7 DQ2, and DR4-DQ8).COMMON. Approximately 1 in 133 people have CD, however, only about 3% of these have been diagnosed. This means that there are over 2.1 million undiagnosed people with celiac disease in the United States.characterized by damage to the mucosal lining of the small intestine which is known as villous atrophy.responsible for the malabsorption of nutrients resulting in malnutrition.linked to skin blisters known as dermatitis herpetiformis (DH).not age-dependent. It may become active at any age.Celiac Disease is NOT: simply a food allergy.an idiosyncratic reaction to food proteins (mediated by IgE).typified by a rapid histamine-type reaction (such as bronchospasm, urticaria, etc.).
37Men & women >70 years: 900 mg Pregnant & women 14-50 years: 1000 mg RDAs of CopperBoys & girls 9-13 years: 700 mgBoys & girls years: 890 mgMen & women years: 900 mgMen & women >70 years: 900 mgPregnant & women years: 1000 mgLactating women years: 1300 mgA good food source of copper contains a substantial amount of copper in relation to its calorie content and contributes at least 10 percent of the U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (U.S. RDA) for copper in a selected serving size. The U.S. RDA for copper is 2 milligrams per day. (The U.S. RDA given is for adults, except pregnant or lactating women, and children over 4 years of age.)The U.S. RDA for copper is the amount of the mineral used as a standard in nutrition labeling of foods. This allowance is based on the 1968 estimate of need made by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. The 1989 range of Estimated Safe and Adequate Intakes for adults is 1.5 to 3 milligrams per day.
38Conclusion Copper have many functions in man Most US people consume less amounts of copper than recommendedCopper in calvin plus = 1 mg can supplement adequate amount of copper per day
40Zinc: What is it?Zinc is an essential mineral that is found in almost every cell.It stimulates the activity of approximately 100 enzymes, which are substances that promote biochemical reactions in the body, including alkaline phosphatase1-2Zinc supports a healthy immune system3-41. Sandstead HH. 1994;124:2. Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001.3. Solomons NW. Nutr Rev 1998;56:27-28.4. Prasad AS. Zinc: An overview. Nutrition 1995;11:93-99
41Zinc: What is it? Zinc is needed for wound healing1 maintain your sense of taste and smell2Zinc is needed for DNA synthesis3Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence4,51. Heyneman CA. Ann Pharmacother 1996;30:2. Prasad AS, et al. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 1997;109:68-77.3. Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001.4. Simmer K and Thompson RP. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1985;319:5. Fabris N and Mocchegiani E. Aging (Milano) 1995;7:77-93.
42What foods provide zinc? Zinc is found in a wide variety of foods1Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food,Red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet.Other good food sources include beans, nuts, certain seafood, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products1-2Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001.U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, Search the database online.
43The 2001 RDAs for zinc for infants 7 through 12 months, children and adults in mg per day AgeInfants and ChildrenMalesFemales Pregnancy Lactation7 mo. to 3 years3 mg4 to 8 years5 mg9 to 13 years8 mg14 to 18 years11 mg9 mg13 mg14 mg19+12 mgInstitute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001
44Inadequate intake of zinc Low zinc status has been observed in 30% to 50% of alcoholics.Alcohol decreases the absorption of zinc and increases loss of zinc in urine.Many alcoholics do not eat an acceptable variety or amount of food, so their dietary intake of zinc may be inadequate1-3Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001Menzano E and Carlen PL. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1994;18:Navarro S, et al., Pancreas 1994;9:
45Inadequate intake of zinc Individuals who have had gastrointestinal surgeryDigestive disorders that result in malabsorptionincluding sprueCrohn’s diseaseshort bowel syndrome1-3These patients may benefit from zinc supplementationInstitute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001Hambidge KM, In: Mills CF, ed. Zinc in Human Biology, New York: Springer-Verlag 1989 PpNaber TH, et al., Scand J Gastroenterol 1998;33:
46Signs of zinc deficiency growth retardationhair lossdiarrheadelayed sexual maturationimpotenceeye and skin lesionsloss of appetiteInstitute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001.
47Signs of zinc deficiency weight lossdelayed healing of woundstaste abnormalitiesmental lethargy1-5Hambidge KM, In: Zinc in Human Biology, 1989 PpKing JC and Keen CL. In: Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 1999, PpKrasovec M and Frenk E. Dermatology 1996;193:Ploysangam A, et al., J Trop Pediatr 1997;43:Nishi Y. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:
48Who may need extra zinc?There is no single laboratory test that adequately measures zinc nutritional status1-2risk factors of zinc deficiency1inadequate caloric intakealcoholismdigestive diseasesInstitute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001.Van Wouwe JP. Clinical and laboratory assessment of zinc deficiency in Dutch children. A review. Biol Trace Elem Res 1995;49:
49Who may need extra zinc?Vegetarians may need as much as 50% more zinc than non-vegetarians because of the lower absorption of zinc from plant foodsit is very important for vegetarians to include good sources of zinc in their diet1-2Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001.Gibson RS. Content and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1223S-1232S.
50ConclusionZinc is an essential mineral for many function including bone growthMany people consume inadequate zinc especially vegetariansZinc in calvin plus = 7.5 mg can supply about 50% of daily requirement of zinc
60ความต้องการโบรอนในมนุษย์ คาดกันว่ามนุษย์มีความต้องการโบรอนในปริมาณ 500 mg/dจากข้อเสนอแนะของ The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine พบว่าโบรอนสูงสุดที่มนุษย์ที่มีอายุมากกว่า 18 ปีสามารถรับได้คือ 20 mg/day
61Evidence Grading Grading A: Strong scientific evidence for this use B: Good scientific evidence for this useC: Unclear scientific evidence for this useD: Fair scientific evidence against this useF: Strong scientific evidence against this use
62Uses based on scientific evidence Evidence GradingUses based on scientific evidenceGradeHormone regulationBoron may increase hormone (estrogen) levels in women, reducing vaginal discomfort after menopause. More research is needed in humans before a strong conclusion can be reached.CImproving cognitive functionPreliminary human study reports better performance on tasks of eye-hand coordination, attention, perception, short-term memory, and long-term memory with boron supplementation. However, additional research is needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
63Uses based on scientific evidence Evidence GradingUses based on scientific evidenceGradeOsteoarthritisBased on human population research, in a boron rich environment, people appear to have fewer joint disorders. It has also been proposed that boron deficiency may contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. However, there is no clear human evidence that supplementation with boron is beneficial as prevention against or as a treatment for osteoarthritis.C
64Uses based on scientific evidence Evidence GradingUses based on scientific evidenceGradeOsteoporosisAnimal and preliminary human studies report that boron may play a role in mineral metabolism, with effects on calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. However, research of bone mineral density in women taking boron supplements does not clearly demonstrate benefits in osteoporosis. Additional study is needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.C
65Uses based on scientific evidence Evidence GradingUses based on scientific evidenceGradeVaginitisInorganic boron (boric acid, borax) has been used as an antiseptic based on proposed antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is proposed that boric acid may have effects against candidal and non-candidal vulvovaginitis. A limited amount of poor-quality research reports that boric acid capsules used in the vagina may be effective for vaginitis. Further evidence is needed before a recommendation can be made.C
66Uses based on scientific evidence Evidence GradingUses based on scientific evidenceGradeBodybuilding aid (increasing testosterone)There is preliminary negative evidence for the use of boron for improving performance in bodybuilding by increasing testosterone. Although boron is suggested to raise testosterone levels, in early human research, total lean body mass has not been affected by boron supplementation in bodybuilders. Additional research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.D
67Uses based on scientific evidence Evidence GradingUses based on scientific evidenceGradeMenopausal symptomsIt has been proposed that boron affects estrogen levels in post-menopausal women. However, preliminary studies have found no changes in menopausal symptoms.D
68Uses based on scientific evidence Evidence GradingUses based on scientific evidenceGradePrevention of blood clotting (coagulation effects)It has been proposed that boron may affect the activity of certain blood clotting factors. Study results conflict. There is not enough evidence in this area to form a clear conclusion.DPsoriasis (boric acid ointment)Preliminary human study of an ointment including boric acid does not report significant benefits in psoriasis.
69Conclusion Boron มีบทบาทสำคัญมากมายต่อร่างกาย จนถึงปัจจุบันยังไม่มีข้อมูลที่ชัดเจนเกี่ยวกับภาวะโบรอนในร่างกายการเสริมโบรอนเชื่อว่าสามารถให้ประโยชน์ต่อร่างกายในหลายๆด้านรวมทั้งโรคกระดูกพรุนCalvin plus เป็นยาแคลเซียมเพียงตัวเดียวที่มีโบรอนเป็นส่วนประสมอยู่ในปริมาณ 0.25 mg