งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

Production Planning and Control 8


งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "Production Planning and Control 8"— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:

1 Production Planning and Control 8
School of Engineering The University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce

2 The University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce
Management of Quality School of Engineering The University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce

3 คุณภาพกับเป้าหมายทางธุรกิจ
บทเรียนจากธุรกิจกาแฟในอเมริกา การเพิ่มผลผลิตของซุปเปอร์มาร์เก็ตแห่งหนึ่ง ประเทศไทยในปี พศ. 2541

4 Agenda Evolutions of quality management Definitions of quality
Some quality awards Quality certification Quality tools Total quality management Applications

5 Quality (Strategies to Competitiveness)
Thailand in Globalization ปัจจัยที่ทำให้ความสามารถแข่งขันของวิสาหกิจไทยตกต่ำ แบ่งเป็น 2 ด้าน 1. ปัจจัยภายนอก - การเปลี่ยนแปลงทางเศรษฐกิจที่มีเครือข่ายเชื่อมโยงเพิ่มมากขึ้น - การกีดกันทางการค้า - เปลี่ยนจากเน้นปริมาณไปสู่คุณภาพ - สิทธิพิเศษทางการค้า Supply Chain Management

6 2. ปัจจัยภายใน - ความได้เปรียบด้านค่าแรงงานราคาถูกกำลังหมดลง - การขาดแคลนทางด้านเทคโนโลยี - ขาดความสามารถทางด้านการวางแผนระยะยาว Ability to competitiveness The improvement of quality in products and improvement of quality in service – these are national priorities as never before. Supply Chain Management

7 Supply Chain Management

8 Supply Chain Management

9 Supply Chain Management

10 Supply Chain Management

11 Supply Chain Management

12 Modern Importance of Quality
“The first job we have is to turn out quality merchandise that consumers will buy and keep on buying. If we produce it efficiently and economically, we will earn a profit, in which you will share.” - William Cooper Procter

13 Quality Management What does the term quality mean?
(standard VS. quality) Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. Prior to the increased level of Japanese competition in the US marketplace in 1970s-1980s, quality was not uppermost in the minds of US business organizations. They tended to focus more on cost and productivity rather than on quality. In automotive sector, leading Japanese manufacturers, became major players in the auto sales. Honda and Toyota built a reputation for quality and reliability in their cars. Many US companies changed their views about quality after that, and changed them drastically.

14 Leaders in the Quality Revolution
Walter Shewhart “Father of statistical quality control” W. Edwards Deming Joseph M. Juran Armand Feignbaum Philip B. Crosby Kaoru Ishikawa Genichi Taguchi

15 Deming Methods to making TQM systems
Continuous Improvement Employee empowerment Benchmarking Just in Time (JIT) Knowledge of TQM tools (14 points)

16 Deming’s 14 Points (Abridged) (1 of 2)
1. Create and publish a company mission statement and commit to it. 2. Learn the new philosophy. 3. Understand the purpose of inspection. 4. End business practices driven by price alone. 5. Constantly improve system of production and service. 6. Institute training. 7. Teach and institute leadership. 8. Drive out fear and create trust.

17 Deming’s 14 Points (2 of 2) 9. Optimize team and individual efforts.
10. Eliminate exhortations for work force. 11. Eliminate numerical quotas and Focus on improvement. 12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. 13. Encourage education and self-improvement. 14. Take action to accomplish the transformation.

18 Deming Chain Reaction Improve quality Costs decrease
Productivity improves Increase market share with better quality and lower prices Stay in business Provide jobs and more jobs

19 Juran’s Quality Trilogy
Quality planning Quality control Quality improvement

20 Quality is free . . . : Phillip B. Crosby
“Quality is free. It’s not a gift, but it is free. What costs money are the unquality things -- all the actions that involve not doing jobs right the first time.”

21 Philip B. Crosby Absolutes of Quality Management:
Quality means conformance to requirements Problems are functional in nature There is no optimum level of defects Cost of quality is the only useful measurement Zero defects is the only performance standard

22 A.V. Feigenbaum Three Steps to Quality
Quality Leadership, with a strong focus on planning Modern Quality Technology, involving the entire work force Organizational Commitment, supported by continuous training and motivation

23 Kaoru Ishikawa Instrumental in developing Japanese quality strategy Influenced participative approaches involving all workers Advocated the use of simple visual tools and statistical techniques

24 Genichi Taguchi (design)
Pioneered a new perspective on quality based on the economic value of being on target and reducing variation and dispelling the traditional view of conformance to specifications: No Loss Loss Tolerance 0.500 0.520 0.480

25 Service Quality Tangibles Convenience Reliability Responsiveness Time
Assurance Courtesy

26 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
Help improve quality in U.S. companies Recognize achievements of excellent firms and provide examples to others Establish criteria for evaluating quality efforts Provide guidance for other U.S. companies Malcolm Baldrige, former U.S. Secretary of Commerce

27 Criteria for Performance Excellence Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
Leadership (125 points) Strategic Planning (85 points) Customer and Market Focus (85 points) Information and Analysis (85 points) Human Resource Focus (85 points) Process Management (85 points) Business Results (450 points) Baldrige Award trophy

28 The Baldrige Framework – A Systems Perspective
Organizational Profile: Environment, Relationships, and Challenges 2 Strategic Planning 5 Human Resource Focus 1 Leadership 7 Business Results The framework is the 30,000 foot view of the Criteria. [Note: Education and Health Care Criteria have slightly different nomenclature.] The building blocks, or Categories, are essential -- performance in the Baldrige categories is the cost of entry -- but excellence in the linkages will be the mark of competitive leadership. The arrows point to excellence. The umbrella over strategy and action plans: It is the set of customer and market focused company-level requirements. These are derived from short- and long-term planning. They are the things that must be done well for the strategy to succeed. The action plans “bring the strategy to life.” They guide overall resource decisions. They drive the alignment of measures for all work units to ensure customer satisfaction and market success. The system: The leadership triad -- leadership, strategic planning, customer & market focus -- emphasizes the importance of a leadership focus on strategy and customers. The results triad is HR focus, process management, and business results. Its focus is on the employees and key processes that accomplish the work of the organization that yields results. ALL company actions point toward results. The large arrow in the center connects the leadership and results triads -- a critical linkage for company success -- and shows the role leaders must play in driving results improvement. Information and analysis are critical to a fact-based system; they are the foundation for the performance management system. 3 Customer & Market Focus 6 Process Management 4 Information and Analysis

29 Baldrige Award Evaluation Process
Receive Applications Stage 1 Independent Review Judges Select for Consensus Review? No Feedback report to applicant Stage 2 Consensus Review Judges Select for Site Visit Review? No Feedback report to applicant The four-stage evaluation process is illustrated in this chart. After each stage of review, the Panel of Judges meets to decide which applicants should go forward to the next stage -- consensus or site visit. The Judges’ guidelines encourage giving “benefit of the doubt” to make certain that all potential Award recipients proceed to each succeeding stage of review. When it is determined that an applicant will not proceed to the next stage of the process, the feedback report is prepared and sent within 45 days. All information remains strictly confidential throughout the process. There are strict conflict-of-interest rules that are followed by all Examiners, Judges, and National Quality Program staff. Stage 3 Site Visit Review Stage 4 Judges Recommend Award Recipients to NIST Director/DOC Feedback report to applicant

30 Quality Certification
ISO 9001:2000 Set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance, critical to international business ISO 14000 A set of international standards for assessing a company’s environmental performance

31 ISO 9001:2000 คืออะไร ISO 9001:2000 เป็นอนุกรมมาตรฐานสำหรับระบบบริหารคุณภาพ ซึ่งเป็นข้อกำหนดขั้นต่ำสุดของระบบคุณภาพซึ่งนำไปปฏิบัติเพื่อให้เกิดความมั่นใจและความพึงพอใจต่อลูกค้าว่าองค์กรนั้น ๆ สามารถผลิตสินค้าหรือให้บริการที่มีคุณภาพบนพื้นฐานของการบริหารคุณภาพที่ยอมรับกันทั่วโลก

32 Objectives of ISO Standards (1 of 2)
Achieve, maintain, and continuously improve product quality Improve quality of operations to continually meet customers’ and stakeholders’ needs Provide confidence to internal management and other employees that quality requirements are being fulfilled

33 Objectives of ISO Standards (2 of 2)
Provide confidence to customers and other stakeholders that quality requirements are being achieved Provide confidence that quality system requirements are fulfilled

34 เหตุผลสำคัญที่ใช้ ISO 9001:2000
1. เป็นมาตรฐานที่ใช้กันทั่วโลก 2. คุณภาพเป็นสิ่งสำคัญในการแข่งขันของธุรกิจทั้งใน ปัจจุบัน และอนาคต 3. มีความหลากหลายในการนำไปประยุกต์ใช้ 4. การยอมรับของประเทศชั้นนำมากกว่า 99 ประเทศ 5. สามารถขึ้นทะเบียนใบรับรองได้ทั่วโลก

35 ประโยชน์ที่ได้รับจากการประยุกต์ใช้
สร้างภาพพจน์ที่ดีต่อองค์กรนำไปใช้ประชาสัมพันธ์ใน ทางสร้างสรรค์ได้ สามารถควบคุมและประสานงานกับผู้ส่งมอบได้ดีขึ้น เกิดการตรวจสอบและพัฒนาตนเองอย่างต่อเนื่อง เกิดช่องทางที่ใช้ควบคุมดูแลประเมินจุดอ่อนและจุดแข็งของแต่ละหน่วยงานได้ มีความยืดหยุ่นด้านการบริหารงานบุคลากร มีความคงที่สม่ำเสมอของคุณภาพผลิตภัณฑ์และบริการ เพิ่มผลผลิต ลดค่าใช้จ่ายและเตรียมทรัพยากรเพื่อการแข่งขันของตลาดในอนาคต

36 ISO 9000 Quality Standard ISO 9000 : 2000 ISO 9001 : 2000
ISO’s Eight Quality Management Principles Customer focus Leadership Involvement of people Process approach System approach to management Continual improvement Factual approach to decision making Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

37 ISO 9001:2000 Quality system standards adopted by International Organization for Standardization in 1987; revised in 1994 and 2000 Technical specifications and criteria to be used as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics to ensure that materials, products, processes, and services are fit for their purpose.

38 ISO 14000 ISO A set of international standards for assessing a company’s environmental performance Standards in three major areas Management systems Operations Environmental systems

39 ISO 14000 Management systems Operations Environmental systems
Systems development and integration of environmental responsibilities into business planning Operations Consumption of natural resources and energy Environmental systems Measuring, assessing and managing emissions, effluents, and other waste

40 (Total Quality Management)
TQM TQM (Total Quality Management)

41 Total Quality Management
A philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction. T Q M

42 TQM TQM Element TQM Workforce Involvement Focus on the Customer

43 TQM INTRODUCTION คือ การจัดระบบและวินัยในการทำงาน เพื่อป้องกันความผิดพลาดเสียหายโดยมุ่งสร้างคุณค่า (VALUE) ในกระบวนการทำงานทุกๆ ขั้นตอน

44 ความเป็นมาของ TQM ระบบควบคุมคุณภาพเชิงสถิติ (SQC)
ระบบควบคุมการผลิตเชิงสถิติ (SPC) DR. W.AWORD DEMMING แนวคิดเชิงระบบ TQM

45 ข้อสรุปด้าน TQM องค์กรต้องมีวิสัยทัศน์ ทางด้านคุณภาพที่ชัดเจน
สามารถพัฒนากลยุทธ์ ทางด้านคุณภาพให้เกิดประโยชน์ทางธุรกิจ รวมถึง COMPETITIVE CAPABILITY (PRICE,QUALITY) มีระบบการวางแผนที่ดีภายใต้สภาพแวดล้อมต่างๆ พนักงานทุกคน UNLIMITED QUALITY EMPOWERMENT CUSTOMER WHOLE TQM PROCESS EXTERNAL CUSTOMER INTERNAL CUSTOMER


47 Continuous Improvement
Philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs. Kaizen: Japanese word for continuous improvement.

48 เครื่องมือของ KAIZEN 1. รายการตรวจสอบ - ใบตรวจสอบ 5ส
- ใบตรวจสอบ 5ส - ความสูญเสีย 7 ประการ - TPM. 2. มาตรฐาน ( Standard ) - คงไว้มาตรฐานแรกที่ทำการปรับปรุงเพื่อเป็นพื้นฐานทำให้ดียิ่งขึ้น 3. เครื่องมือ 7 แบบ ( Seven Tools ) 3.1 ใบตรวจสอบ (Check sheet ) 3.2 ผังแสดงเหตุและผล ( Cause and effect Diagrams ) 3.3 ผังพาเรโต้ ( Pareto Diagrams ) 3.4 Graph 3.5 ฮิสโตแกรม ( Histograms ) 3.6 ผังการกระจาย ( Scatter Diagrams ) 3.7 แผนภูมิควบคุม ( Control Charts ) 4. การควบคุมด้วยสายตา ( Visual Control )

49 Implementing Total Quality: Key Players
Senior management Middle management Workforce

50 Sustaining the Quality Organization
View quality as a journey (“Race without a finish line”) Recognize that success takes time Create a “learning organization” Planning Execution of plans Assessment of progress Revision of plans based on assessment findings Use Baldrige assessment and feedback Share internal best practices (internal benchmarking)

51 Problem Solving Process
Redefining and analyzing the problem Generating ideas Evaluating and selecting ideas 4. Implementing ideas

52 Basic Steps in Problem Solving
Define the problem and establish an improvement goal Collect data Analyze the problem Generate potential solutions Choose a solution Implement the solution Monitor the solution to see if it accomplishes the goal Problem solving is one of the basic procedures of TQM. An important aspect of problem solving in the TQM approach is eliminating the cause so that the problem does not recur. Give problem definition careful consideration; don’t rush through this step because this will serve as the focal point of problem solving efforts The solution must be based on facts. Possible tools include check sheets, scatter diagram, histogram, control chart. possible tools include Pareto chart, cause and effect diagram methods include brainstorming, interviewing, and surveying identify the criteria for choosing a solution keep everyone informed possible tools include control chart and run chart.

53 Process Improvement and Tools
Process improvement - a systematic approach to improving a process Process mapping Analyze the process Redesign the process Tools There are a number of tools that can be used for problem solving and process improvement Tools aid in data collection and interpretation, and provide the basis for decision making

54 The Process Improvement Cycle
Implement the Improved process Select a process Study/document Seek ways to Improve it Design an Evaluate Document

55 7 Tools Quality Flowcharts Check sheets Histograms
Cause-and-effect diagrams Pareto diagrams Scatter diagrams Control charts

56 Quality Tools Flowchart ; A diagram of the steps in process
Check sheet ; A tool for organizing and collecting data; a tall of problems or other events by category Day Defect 1 2 3 4 A B C

57 Quality Tools Histogram ; A chart that shows an empirical frequency distribution A B C D E Pareto ; A diagram that arranges categories from highest to lowest frequency of occurrence Pareto of 1QF04 SMT Defective 11 10 7 3 2 1 13 33 84 % 87 90 93 95 97 98 99 100 77 66 56 32 44 5 15 20 25 30 35 Offland Solder bridge Other Rotate Missing with glue Poor solder no glue with Over glue Floating Up side down No Peel off Slice no Crack Double parts ball Stand ppm 40 50 60 70 80

58 Quality Tools Scatter diagram ; A graph that shows the degree and direction of relationship between two variables Variable B Variable A Control chart ; A statistical chart of time-ordered values of a sample statistic UCL LCL

59 Defect Quality Tools Man Machine Material Method
Cause-and-effect ; A diagram used to organize a search for the cause of a problem ;also known as a fishbone diagram Man Machine Timing belt is worn out Vale is leakage Not follow W/I Timing belt is worn out No have skill Defect No have spec in W/I Material is lowest grade Not clear in W/I Thickness is out of spec Material Method

60 Methods for Generating Ideas
Brainstorming Quality circles Interviewing Benchmarking

61 Quality Circles Team approach List reduction Balance sheet
Paired comparisons

62 Benchmarking Process Identify a critical process that needs improving
Identify an organization that excels in this process Contact that organization Analyze the data Improve the critical process

63 Application TQM

64 The JATCO’s TQM JATCO (The Japan Automatic Transmission Company) Ford 50%, Nissan 25% Mazda 25% HSQ Campaign Hito = Human resources Seiketsu = Clean and faithful Quality TQM - Policy Management - Company –Wide Quality Control (QCC) Supply Chain Management

65 Supply Chain Management

66 Cross Functional Management Enhanced Standard of Work
- handbook of procedure standard design - Developed Computer aided Design - Developed Computer aided Manufacturing - Built the new product Supply Chain Management

67 The YHP’s Tale Critical of YHP Customer’s satisfaction
- weakness in quality of product - weakness in processes - no information of customer satisfaction - no use quality management in YHP Key success -defect 0.4 % (4000 ppm) compare with HP 1% - used QCC only 100 ppm until 3 ppm Supply Chain Management

68 Supply Chain Management

69 Market in Concept Supply Chain Management

70 Supply Chain Management

71 The Siam Compressor The SCI’s TQC - 5 ส
- TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) - QCC - ISO 9000 - Cost Improvement Activities - Project Teams Policy management Process - PDCA - Management by Objectives Supply Chain Management

72 Key success Cascaded Training Standard documents CEO understands
All staffs can share ideas. Supply Chain Management

73 Supply Chain Management

74 Supply Chain Management

75 Supply Chain Management

ดาวน์โหลด ppt Production Planning and Control 8


Ads by Google