งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "HOW TO WRITE A SCIENTIFIC PAPER By Amnuay Thithapandha, Ph.D. Professor, Office of Academic Affairs Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Mahidol University."— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:
HOW TO WRITE A SCIENTIFIC PAPER By Amnuay Thithapandha, Ph.D. Professor, Office of Academic Affairs Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Mahidol University By Amnuay Thithapandha, Ph.D. Professor, Office of Academic Affairs Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Mahidol University
A detailed and systematic study of a subject, especially in order to discover new fact or information or reach a new understanding. Question Uncertainty Folklore INFORMATION FACT THEORY WHAT IS RESEARCH ?
University culture favors research which takes a much greater priority than teaching For academic recognition at both national and international levels To become a better teacher WHY RESEARCH ?
A UNIVERSITY LECTURER WHO DOES NO RESEARCH IS NOT UNLIKE A SCHOOL TEACHER. A UNIVERSITY LECTURER WHO DOES NO RESEARCH IS NOT UNLIKE A SCHOOL TEACHER. James A. Olson
A manuscript submitted must represent report in one of the following types of research : Me too ” “ Me too ” I can do better “ I can do better ” Original “ Original ” Novel “ Novel ”
Not acceptable due to prior publications is paper published in : Serial Periodical Book Conference report Symposium proceeding Technical bulletin
Acceptable is work presented as : Abstract at meeting Limited data as poster Some data posted on university / company website
TYPICAL LAYOUT OF A SCIENTIFIC MANUSCRIPT Title page --- this should contain title of the manuscript, names of all authors or coauthors together names of all authors or coauthors together with the affiliated departments, key words, with the affiliated departments, key words, running title and correspondence address running title and correspondence address Abstract Introduction Materials & Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements List of references Figures and Tables (including title/legend)
TITLETITLE Guideline for producing a good title The simpler is the title, the better it is Consider the target readership Be brief --- short title is clearer and more interesting more interesting Avoid excessive adjectives Use phrase rather than sentence whenever possible whenever possible Do not make it sensational
ABSTRACT 1. Should consist of four basic parts, which can vary individually in length : vary individually in length : Why what was done was done ? What was done ? What was found ? What was concluded ? 2. Should not exceed 250-300 words in length 3. Be clear and concise and avoid unnecessary detail. It should contain the essence of the whole paper and can stand alone.
INTRODUCTION Tell readers why you have undertaken the Tell readers why you have undertaken the study : What has really interested you Make clear how your work adds importantly to what has gone before to what has gone before Choose references that are apposite, not simply Choose references that are apposite, not simply to demonstrate that you have done a lot of reading. Make clear to the editor and readers in a few Make clear to the editor and readers in a few words why your study is superior to previous ones and convince them that you are aware of earlier studies.
INTRODUCTION (Cont) Don’t baffle your reader : Don’t baffle your reader : unfamiliar abbreviations diseases, drugs, places or whatever that they do not know they do not know Give the study design, but not the conclusion “We therefore conducted a double blind randomized controlled study with 10-year follow up to determine whether _ _ _ _ _ _.” Introduction
METHODS How the study was designed : How the study was designed : Name the study design and keep the description short description short Say how randomisation was done (if any) Describe in sufficient details so that experiments can be repeated by others Describe in sufficient details so that experiments can be repeated by others Describe in complete details only new methods For commonly used materials and methods, a reference is sufficient
METHODS (Cont) How the data were analyzed : How the data were analyzed : Use a P value to disprove the null hypothesis hypothesis Give an estimate of the sample size and the sample size and the power of test power of test Give the exact test used for statistical analysis analysis
It is useful to identify method as well as reference. Better to write “cells were broken by ultrasonic treatment as previously described(6)” rather than “cells were broken as previously described(6)”.
For centrifugation experiment, include centrifuge, rotor type, temperature, time at maximum speed and centrifugal force(g).
RESULTS The text should tell the story Figures and Tables will summarize the evidence ; for a particular set of data, use either Figures or for a particular set of data, use either Figures or Tables, not both Tables, not both Use illustration to show a highlight The type of statistical test and statistical significance need to be brought out to emphasize significance need to be brought out to emphasize the difference between various mean values the difference between various mean values Photographs must include measures to protect the anonymity of any patient while micrographs the anonymity of any patient while micrographs need measures of scale need measures of scale
DISCUSSION Summarise the major findings Discuss possible problems with the methods used methods used Compare your results with previous work and interpret the results in relation to previously published work Should not contain extensive repetition of RESULTS or statements from INTRODUCTION Discuss the clinical implications of your findings findings
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Source of research funding (this is a MUST) (this is a MUST) Colleagues, nurse, technician Should not be viewed as a “catch-all” for anyone you wish to flatter or do not for anyone you wish to flatter or do not wish to offend wish to offend
REFERENCES Restrict the list to those references with a direct bearing on the work described direct bearing on the work described Cite only references to journals listed in Index Medicus Index Medicus Check the house style on whether the Vancouver or Harvard system is used Vancouver or Harvard system is used Check the “Instructions to authors” to make sure that you have included all the make sure that you have included all the necessary details of each reference necessary details of each reference Guidelines for producing a useful reference list :
FIGURES & TABLES Give title to each figure or table Each figure and table must be self explanatory Should not have many symbols
STYLE House style gives individual publications their identity and can count when it comes to having papers accepted The longer the sentence, the greater likelihood of confusion confusion Never use a long word when a short one will do Avoid idioms or jargon words Use abbreviations with care Passive constructions should be used sparingly because they can be very dull because they can be very dull Prepositions are better than strings of nouns (noun salads) (noun salads)
GRAMMAR Use past tense to describe procedures, observations and data of your work. Use present tense for general conclusions, conclusions of previous researchers, and generally accepted facts.
Thus, most of the Abstracts, Materials and Methods and Results will be in the past tense, and most of the Introduction and some of the Discussion will be in the present tense.
“White (10) demonstrated that ABC cells grow at pH 6.8” “On the other hand, in this study ABC cells failed to grow at pH 6.8 (Figure 1)”.
“Air was removed from the chamber and the mice died, which proves that mice require air.”
“The values for different concentrations of drug on the number of ABC cells are statistically different, indicating that the drug inhibited their growth. ”
Rejection of paper Absolute : “Our referees have evaluated your manuscript and find that it is not acceptable.” Read the criticisms carefully and make changes to the manuscript as suggested and submit it to another journal.
Rejection of paper Conditional : “Our referees have evaluated your manuscript and find that it is not acceptable in its present form.”
How to reply to the Editor Consider this as an appeal process. The reply is considered by the Editor, and is rarely sent back to the referees for another evaluation.
How to reply to the Editor If you need to do further experiments, and it is still possible, do them. Reply point by point. Write out the criticism/comment and then reply to it. Indicate clearly in the revised manuscript where you have made changes.
Sir Peter Medawar wrote “A scientific paper is a fraud” It’s a fan It’s a spear It’s a tree It’s rope It’s a wall
The research work has little value if it cannot be published ! Frank J. Gonzalez
A good biomedical research must influence medicine, either in the diagnosis or treatment of diseases. K.L. Melmon
No job is finished till the paper work is done.