17 “ Me too ” “ I can do better ” “ Original ” “ Novel ” A manuscript submitted must represent report in one of the following types of research :“ Me too ”“ I can do better ”“ Original ”“ Novel ”
18 Serial Periodical Book Conference report Symposium proceeding Not acceptable due to prior publications is paper published in :SerialPeriodicalBookConference reportSymposium proceedingTechnical bulletin
19 Acceptable is work presented as : Abstract at meetingLimited data as posterSome data posted onuniversity / company website
20 TYPICAL LAYOUT OF A SCIENTIFIC MANUSCRIPT Title page --- this should contain title of the manuscript,names of all authors or coauthors togetherwith the affiliated departments, key words,running title and correspondence addressAbstractIntroductionMaterials & MethodsResultsDiscussionAcknowledgementsList of referencesFigures and Tables (including title/legend)
21 TITLE Guideline for producing a good title The simpler is the title, the better it isConsider the target readershipBe brief --- short title is clearer andmore interestingAvoid excessive adjectivesUse phrase rather than sentencewhenever possibleDo not make it sensational
22 ABSTRACT 1. Should consist of four basic parts, which can vary individually in length :Why what was done was done ?What was done ?What was found ?What was concluded ?2. Should not exceed words in length3. Be clear and concise and avoid unnecessary detail.It should contain the essence of the whole paperand can stand alone.
23 INTRODUCTION Tell readers why you have undertaken the study : What has really interested youMake clear how your work adds importantlyto what has gone beforeChoose references that are apposite, not simplyto demonstrate that you have done a lot of reading.Make clear to the editor and readers in a fewwords why your study is superior to previous onesand convince them that you are aware of earlierstudies.
24 INTRODUCTION (Cont) unfamiliar abbreviations Don’t baffle your reader :unfamiliar abbreviationsdiseases, drugs, places or whatever thatthey do not knowGive the study design, but not the conclusion“We therefore conducted a double blind randomized controlled study with 10-year follow up to determine whether _ _ _ _ _ _.”Introduction
25 METHODS How the study was designed : Name the study design and keep thedescription shortSay how randomisation was done (if any)Describe in sufficient details so that experiments can be repeated by othersDescribe in complete details only new methodsFor commonly used materials and methods, a reference is sufficient
26 METHODS (Cont) How the data were analyzed : Use a P value to disprove the nullhypothesisGive an estimate of thesample size and thepower of testGive the exact test used for statisticalanalysis
27 It is useful to identify method as well as reference. Better to write “cells were broken by ultrasonic treatment as previously described(6)” rather than “cells were broken as previously described(6)”.
28 For centrifugation experiment, include centrifuge, rotor type, temperature, time at maximum speed and centrifugal force(g).
29 RESULTS The text should tell the story Figures and Tables will summarize the evidence ;for a particular set of data, use either Figures orTables, not bothUse illustration to show a highlightThe type of statistical test and statisticalsignificance need to be brought out to emphasizethe difference between various mean valuesPhotographs must include measures to protectthe anonymity of any patient while micrographsneed measures of scale
30 DISCUSSION Summarise the major findings Discuss possible problems with themethods usedCompare your results with previous work and interpret the results in relation to previously published workShould not contain extensive repetition of RESULTS or statements from INTRODUCTIONDiscuss the clinical implications of yourfindings
31 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Source of research funding (this is a MUST) Colleagues, nurse, technicianShould not be viewed as a “catch-all”for anyone you wish to flatter or do notwish to offend
32 REFERENCES Guidelines for producing a useful reference list : Restrict the list to those references with adirect bearing on the work describedCite only references to journals listed inIndex MedicusCheck the house style on whether theVancouver or Harvard system is usedCheck the “Instructions to authors” tomake sure that you have included all thenecessary details of each reference
33 FIGURES & TABLES Give title to each figure or table Each figure and table must be selfexplanatoryShould not have many symbols
34 STYLE House style gives individual publications their identity and can count when it comes to havingpapers acceptedThe longer the sentence, the greater likelihood ofconfusionNever use a long word when a short one will doAvoid idioms or jargon wordsUse abbreviations with carePassive constructions should be used sparinglybecause they can be very dullPrepositions are better than strings of nouns(noun salads)
35 GRAMMARUse past tense to describe procedures, observations and data of your work.Use present tense for general conclusions, conclusions of previous researchers, and generally accepted facts.
36 Thus, most of the Abstracts, Materials and Methods and Results will be in the past tense, and most of the Introduction and some of the Discussion will be in the present tense.
37 “White (10) demonstrated that ABC cells grow at pH 6.8” “On the other hand, in this study ABC cells failed to grow at pH 6.8 (Figure 1)”.
38 “Air was removed from the chamber and the mice died, which proves that mice require air.”
39 “The values for different concentrations of drug on the number of ABC cells are statistically different , indicating that the drug inhibited their growth.”
40 Absolute : Rejection of paper “Our referees have evaluated your manuscript and find that it is not acceptable.”Read the criticisms carefully and make changes to the manuscript as suggested and submit it to another journal.
41 Rejection of paper Conditional : “Our referees have evaluated your manuscript and find that it is not acceptable in its present form.”
42 How to reply to the Editor Consider this as an appeal process.The reply is considered by the Editor, and is rarely sent back to the referees for another evaluation.
43 How to reply to the Editor If you need to do further experiments, and it is still possible, do them.Reply point by point. Write out the criticism/comment and then reply to it.Indicate clearly in the revised manuscript where you have made changes.
44 Sir Peter Medawar wrote “A scientific paper is a fraud” It’s a wallIt’s a fanIt’s a spearIt’s ropeIt’s a tree
45 The research work has little value if it cannot be published ! Frank J. Gonzalez
46 A good biomedical research must influence medicine, either in the diagnosis or treatment of diseases.K.L. Melmon
47 No job is finished till the paper work is done.