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1 Chapter 8 Local Area Networks - Internetworking.

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1 1 Chapter 8 Local Area Networks - Internetworking

2 Objective สามารถอธิบายเหตุผลในการเชื่อมต่อ เครือข่ายท้องถิ่น (LAN) หลายๆวง และการ เชื่อมต่อเครือข่ายท้องถิ่น (LAN) กับ เครือข่ายบริเวณกว้างแวน (WAN) สามารถระบุหน้าที่การทำงานและ วัตถุประสงค์ของอุปกรณ์ในการเชื่อมต่อแต่ ละชนิด สามารถนิยามความหมายของฮับ (Hub) และ และยกตัวอย่างสถานการณ์ที่นำไปใช้ 2

3 Objective ( ต่อ ) สามารถอธิบายวิธีการเรียนรู้ของบริดจ์ (Bridge) สามารถนิยามความหมายของสวิตช์ (Switch) และบอกถึงความแตกต่างจากอุปกรณ์อื่นๆ สามารถอธิบายถึงสถานการณ์ต่างๆและ ประโยชน์ที่เกิดขึ้นเมื่อนำสวิตช์ (Switch) ไป ใช้ สามารถนิยามความหมายของเราเตอร์ (Router) และบอกถึงความแตกต่างจาก อุปกรณ์อื่นๆ สามารถบอกถึงสถานการณ์ต่างๆ ที่ต้องใช้ เราเตอร์ (Router) ได้ 3

4 4 Introduction Many times it is necessary to connect a local area network to another local area network or to a wide area network. Local area network to local area network connections are often performed with a bridge-like device. Local area network to wide area network connections are usually performed with a router. A third device, the switch, can be used to interconnect segments of a local area network. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

5 5 Why Interconnect? To separate / connect one corporate division with another. To connect two LANs with different protocols. To connect a LAN to the Internet. To break a LAN into segments to relieve traffic congestion. To provide a security wall between two different types of users. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

6 6 Hubs As seen earlier, a hub interconnects two or more workstations into a local area network. When a workstation transmits to a hub, the hub immediately resends the data frame out all connecting links. A hub can be managed or unmanaged. A managed hub possesses enough processing power that it can be managed from a remote location. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

7 7 Bridges A bridge (or bridge-like device) can be used to connect two similar LANs, such as two CSMA/CD LANs. A bridge can also be used to connect two closely similar LANs, such as a CSMA/CD LAN and a token ring LAN. The bridge examines the destination address in a frame and either forwards this frame onto the next LAN or does not. The bridge examines the source address in a frame and places this address in a routing table, to be used for future routing decisions. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

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9 9 Transparent Bridges A transparent bridge does not need programming but observes all traffic and builds routing tables from this observation. This observation is called backward learning. Each bridge has two connections (ports) and there is a routing table associated with each port. A bridge observes each frame that arrives at a port, extracts the source address from the frame, and places that address in the port’s routing table. A transparent bridge is found with CSMA/CD LANs. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

10 10 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

11 11 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

12 12 Transparent Bridges A transparent bridge can also convert one frame format to another, but this does not happen too often anymore since most networks are CSMA/CD. Note that some people / manufacturers call a bridge such as this a gateway or sometimes a router. The bridge removes the headers and trailers from one frame format and inserts (encapsulates) the headers and trailers for the second frame format. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

13 13 Remote Bridges A remote bridge is capable of passing a data frame from one local area network to another when the two LANs are separated by a long distance and there is a wide area network connecting the two LANs. A remote bridge takes the frame before it leaves the first LAN and encapsulates the WAN headers and trailers. When the packet arrives at the destination remote bridge, that bridge removes the WAN headers and trailers leaving the original frame. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

14 14 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

15 15 Spanning Tree Algorithm What happens if you have many LANs interconnected with multiple bridges, such as shown in the next slide? Data that leaves one workstation could travel to a bridge, across the next network, into the next bridge, and back onto the first network. A packet may continue to cycle like this forever! Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

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18 18 Spanning Tree Algorithm How do we stop this from happening? Disconnect one of the bridges? Maybe we want bridge redundancy in case one bridge fails. How about applying the spanning tree algorithm. How is the algorithm applied? Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

19 19 Spanning Tree Algorithm Step 1: Designate a Root Bridge Step 2: Mark one port of each bridge as the Root Port. The root port is the port with the least-cost path from that bridge to the root bridge. The root ports are denoted with an asterisk in Figure 8-7b. Step 3: The next step is to select a designated bridge for each LAN. A designated bridge has the least-cost path between that LAN and the root bridge. Mark the corresponding port that connects that LAN to its designated bridge with two asterisks (Figure 8-7b) Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

20 20 Spanning Tree Algorithm Step 4: If a port has no asterisks, that port is redundant and can be “removed”. Keep all ports with one or two asterisks. The resulting configuration is shown in Figure 8-7c. Note there is now only one way to get to any LAN or bridge from any other LAN or bridge. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

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22 22 Switches A switch is a combination of a hub and a bridge. It can interconnect two or more workstations, but like a bridge, it observes traffic flow and learns. When a frame arrives at a switch, the switch examines the destination address and forwards the frame out the one necessary connection. Workstations that connect to a hub are on a shared segment. Workstations that connect to a switch are on a switched segment. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

23 23 Switches The backplane of a switch is fast enough to support multiple data transfers at one time. A switch that employs cut-through architecture is passing on the frame before the entire frame has arrived at the switch. Multiple workstations connected to a switch use dedicated segments. This is a very efficient way to isolate heavy users from the network. A switch can allow simultaneous access to multiple servers, or multiple simultaneous connections to a single server. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

24 24 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

25 25 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

26 26 Virtual LANs A virtual LAN, or VLAN, is a logical subgroup within a local area network that is created via switches and software rather than by manually moving wiring from one network device to another Even though the employees and their actual computer workstations may be scattered throughout the building, LAN switches and VLAN software can be used to create a “network within a network.” Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

27 27 Virtual LANs A relatively new standard, IEEE 802.1Q, was designed to allow multiple devices to intercommunicate and work together to create a virtual LAN Instead of sending a technician to a wiring closet to move a workstation cable from one switch to another, an 802.1Q- compliant switch can be remotely configured by a network administrator Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

28 28 Isolating Traffic Patterns with Switches Whether shared or dedicated segments are involved, the primary goal of a switch is to isolate a particular pattern of traffic from other patterns of traffic or from the remainder of the network Switches, because of their backplane, can also allow multiple paths of communications to simultaneously occur Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

29 29 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

30 30 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

31 31 Isolating Traffic Patterns with Switches Using a pair of routers, it is possible to interconnect to switched segments, essentially creating one large local area network Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

32 32 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

33 33 Full Duplex Switches A full duplex switch allows for simultaneous transmission and reception of data to and from a workstation. This full duplex connection helps to eliminate collisions. To support a full duplex connection to a switch, at least two pairs of wires are necessary - one for the receive operation and one for the transmit operation. Most people install four pairs today, so wiring is not the problem. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

34 34 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

35 35 Network Servers Network servers provide the storage necessary for LAN software. They are usually the focal point for the network operating system. Increasingly, network servers are functioning as bridges, switches, and routers. By adding the appropriate card, a server can assume multiple functions. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

36 36 Routers The device that connects a LAN to a WAN or a WAN to a WAN. A router accepts an outgoing packet, removes any LAN headers and trailers, and encapsulates the necessary WAN headers and trailers. Because a router has to make wide area network routing decisions, the router has to dig down into the network layer of the packet to retrieve the network destination address. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

37 37 Routers Thus, routers are often called “layer 3 devices”. They operate at the third layer, or OSI network layer, of the packet. Routers often incorporate firewall functions. An example of a router’s operation is shown on the next slide. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

38 38 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

39 39 LAN Internetworking In Action: A Small Office Revisited Recall the In Action example from Chapter Seven. A small office with 20 workstations in one room and 15 workstations in another room were connected to a server via 100BaseTX. One hub was kept in a closet near the 20 workstations while a second hub was near the server. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

40 40 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

41 41 LAN Internetworking In Action: A Small Office Revisited Now Hannah wants to connect the LAN to the Internet. She adds a router next to the server and connects it to the hub. She connects the router to a high-speed telephone line such as a T-1 service. She will also have to program the router to perform IP addressing and firewall functions. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

42 42 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

43 43 LAN Internetworking In Action: A Small Office Revisited Now network usage is so high that Hannah must consider segmenting the network. She decides to install a database server near the original server and replace both hubs with switches. Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

44 44 Chapter Eight - Local Area Networks: Internetworking

45 Exercise อะไรคือเหตุผลในการเชื่อมต่อเครือข่าย ตั้งแต่สองเครือข่ายขึ้นไป จงบอกหลักการทำงานของอุปกรณ์ต่อไปนี้ hub, bridge, transparent bridge, switch และ router จงบอกความแตกต่างของ switch, hub และ bridge Backward learning และ cut-through architecture คืออะไร เกี่ยวข้องกันหรือไม่ อย่างไร หากท่านทำงาน ณ บริษัทเล็กๆ แห่งหนึ่งที่มี จำนวนพนักงานจำนวน 12 คน มีเวิร์คสเตชั่น 5 เครื่องที่ต้องการเชื่อมต่อกับอินเตอร์เน็ต จงออกแบบเครือข่ายทั้งหมดที่เป็นไปได้ พร้อมบอกข้อดี ข้อเสียในแต่ละแบบ พร้อม บอกถึงทางเลือกที่ดีที่สุด 45

46 46 Hands-on Projects จงสร้างแผนที่ในมหาวิทยาลัยอีสเทิร์นเอเชีย และออกแบบเครือข่าย ว่าฮับตั้งอยู่ที่ใดบ้าง, มีสวิตช์หรือไม่ ถ้ามีตั้งอยู่ที่ใดบ้าง, มีบริดจ์ หรือไม่ ถ้ามีตั้งอยู่ที่ใดบ้าง และ มีเราเตอร์ หรือไม่ ถ้ามีตั้งอยู่ที่ใดบ้าง และวาดรูปประกอบ


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