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1 Chapter Three The Media – Conducted and Wireless.

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งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "1 Chapter Three The Media – Conducted and Wireless."— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:

1 1 Chapter Three The Media – Conducted and Wireless

2 2 Objective สามารถบอกคุณสมบัติของสายคู่บิดเกลียว และ ข้อดี ข้อเสียของสายคู่บิดเกลียว สามารถแยกความแตกต่างระหว่างสายู่บิดเกลียว ประเภทที่ 1 ถึง 7 สามารถอธิบายถึงสายคู่บิดเกลียวแบบมีฉนวน ว่า ดีกว่าสายคู่บิดเกลียวแบบไม่มีฉนวนอย่างไร สามารถอธิบายคุณสมบัติ ข้อดี ข้อเสีย ของสายโค แอกเชียล และสายไฟเบอร์ ออปติค สามารถอธิบายคุณสมบัติ และข้อดี ข้อเสียของ ระบบไมโครเวฟภาคพื้นดิน สามารถระบุคุณสมบัติ ข้อดี ข้อเสีย ของระบบ ดาวเทียม รวมถึงบอกความแตกต่างระหว่างวง โคจรระดับต่ำ ( แอลอีโอ ), วงโคจรระดับกลาง ( เอ็มอี โอ ), วงโคจรโลกสมวาร ( จีอีโอ ) และ วงโคจรรีมาก ( เอชอีโอ )

3 3 สามารถอธิบายพื้นฐานของโทรศัพท์เซลลูล่าร์ รวมถึงระบบเซลลูล่าร์ ในยุคปัจจุบัน สามารถระบุคุณสมบัติของการส่งข้อมูลระยะสั้น เช่น บลูธูท สามารถบอกคุณสมบัติข้อดีข้อเสียของ WAP, ระบบไร้สายแบบบรอดแบนด์ และเทคนิคการส่ง ข้อมูลระยะใกล้แบบไร้สายชนิดต่างๆ สามารถประยุกต์ในการเลือกใช้สื่อโดยพิจารณา ถึง ต้นทุน, ความเร็ว, ระยะทางและการขยาย, สภาพแวดล้อม และความปลอดภัย ในการ เลือกใช้สื่อที่หลากหลายกับแอปพลิเคชั่น เฉพาะ

4 4 Introduction The world of computer would not exist if there were no medium by which to transfer data The two major categories of media include: –Conducted media –Wireless media Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

5 5 Twisted Pair Wire One or more pairs of single conductor wires that have been twisted around each other Twisted pair wire is classified by category. Twisted pair is currently Category 1 through Category 7, although Categories 2 and 4 are nearly obsolete Twisting the wires helps to eliminate electromagnetic interference between the two wires Shielding can further help to eliminate interference Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

6 6 Twisted Pair Wire Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

7 7 Twisted Pair Wire Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

8 8 Twisted Pair Wire Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

9 9

10 10 Coaxial Cable A single wire wrapped in a foam insulation surrounded by a braided metal shield, then covered in a plastic jacket. Cable comes in various thicknesses Baseband coaxial technology uses digital signaling in which the cable carries only one channel of digital data Broadband coaxial technology transmits analog signals and is capable of supporting multiple channels Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

11 11 Coaxial Cable Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

12 12 Coaxial Cable Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

13 13 Fiber Optic Cable A thin glass cable approximately a little thicker than a human hair surrounded by a plastic coating and packaged into an insulated cable A photo diode or laser generates pulses of light which travel down the fiber optic cable and are received by a photo receptor Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

14 14 Fiber Optic Cable Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

15 15 Fiber Optic Cable Fiber optic cable is capable of supporting millions of bits per second for 1000s of meters Thick cable (62.5/125 microns) causes more ray collisions, so you have to transmit slower. This is step index multimode fiber. Typically use LED for light source, shorter distance transmissions Thin cable (8.3/125 microns) – very little reflection, fast transmission, typically uses a laser, longer transmission distances; known as single mode fiber Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

16 16 Fiber Optic Cable Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

17 17 Fiber Optic Cable Fiber optic cable is susceptible to reflection (where the light source bounces around inside the cable) and refraction (where the light source passes out of the core and into the surrounding cladding) Thus, fiber optic cable is not perfect either. Noise is still a potential problem Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

18 18 Fiber Optic Cable Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

19 19 Fiber Optic Cable It is very common to mix fiber with twisted pair in LANs Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

20 20 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

21 21 Wireless Media Radio, satellite transmissions, and infrared light are all different forms of electromagnetic waves that are used to transmit data Technically speaking – in wireless transmissions, space is the medium Note in the following figure how each source occupies a different set of frequencies Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

22 22 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

23 23 Terrestrial Microwave Land-based, line-of-sight transmission Approximately miles between towers Transmits data at hundred of millions of bits per second Signals will not pass through solid objects Popular with telephone companies and business to business transmissions Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

24 24 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

25 25 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless Often the microwave antennas are on towers or buildings

26 26 Satellite Microwave Similar to terrestrial microwave except the signal travels from a ground station on earth to a satellite and back to another ground station Can also transmit signals from one satellite to another Satellites can be classified by how far out into orbit each one is (LEO, MEO, GEO, and HEO) Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

27 27 Satellite Microwave Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

28 28 Satellite Microwave LEO – Low Earth Orbit – 100 to 1000 miles out. Used for wireless , special mobile telephones, pagers, spying, videoconferencing MEO – Middle Earth Orbit – 1000 to 22,300 miles. Used for GPS (global positioning systems) and government GEO – Geosynchronous Earth Orbit – 22,300 miles. Always over the same position on earth (and always over the equator). Used for weather, television, government operations Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

29 29 Satellite Microwave HEO – Highly Elliptical Earth orbit – satellite follows an elliptical orbit HEO is used by the military for spying and by scientific organizations for photographing celestial bodies Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

30 30 Satellite Microwave Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

31 31 Satellite Microwave Satellite microwave can also be classified by its configuration: –Bulk carrier configuration –Multiplexed configuration –Single-user earth station configuration (e.g. VSAT) Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

32 32 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

33 33 Cellular Telephone Wireless telephone service, also called mobile telephone, cell phone, and PCS To support multiple users in a metropolitan area (market), the market is broken into cells Each cell has its own transmission tower and set of assignable channels Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

34 34 Cellular Telephone Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

35 35 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

36 36 Cellular Telephone – 1 st Generation AMPS – Advanced Mobile Phone Service – first popular cell phone service; used analog signals and dynamically assigned channels D-AMPS – Digital AMPS – applied digital multiplexing techniques on top of AMPS analog channels Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

37 37 Cellular Telephone – 2 nd Generation PCS – Personal Communication Systems – essentially all-digital cell phone service PCS phones came in three technologies: –TDMA – time division multiple access –CDMA – code division multiple access –GSM – global system for mobile communications Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

38 38 Cellular Telephone – 2.5 Generation AT&T Wireless, Cingular Wireless, and T-Mobile now using GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) in their GSM networks (can transmit data at 30 kbps to 40 kbps) Verizon Wireless, Alltel, U.S.Cellular, and Sprint PCS are using CDMA2000 1xRTT (one carrier radio- transmission technology) (50 kbps to 75 kbps) Nextel uses IDEN technology Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

39 39 Cellular Telephone – 3 rd Generation UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) – also called Wideband CDMA; the 3G version of GPRS; UMTS not backward compatible with GSM (thus requires phones with multiple decoders) 1XEV (1 x Enhanced Version) – The 3G replacement for 1xRTT; will come in two forms: –1xEV-DO for data only –1xEV-DV for data and voice Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

40 40 Infrared Transmissions Transmissions that use a focused ray of light in the infrared frequency range Very common with remote control devices, but can also be used for device-to-device transfers, such as PDA to computer Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

41 41 WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) WAP is a set of protocols that allows wireless devices such as cell phones, PDAs, and two-way radios to access the Internet WAP is designed to work with small screens and with limited interactive controls WAP incorporates Wireless Markup Language (WML) which is used to specify the format and presentation of text on the screen Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

42 42 WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) WAP may be used for applications such as –Travel directions –Sports scores – –Online address books –Traffic alerts –Banking and news Possible short-comings include low speeds, security, and very small user interface Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

43 43 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

44 44 Broadband Wireless Systems Delivers Internet services into homes and businesses Designed to bypass the local loop telephone line Transmits voice, data, and video over high frequency radio signals Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

45 45 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

46 46 Broadband Wireless Systems Multichannel multipoint distribution service (MMDS) and local multipoint distribution service (LMDS) looked promising a few years ago but died off Now companies are eyeing Wi-Max, an IEEE standard; initially 300 kbps to 2 Mbps over a range of as much as 30 miles; forthcoming standard (802.16e) will allow for moving devices Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

47 47 Bluetooth Bluetooth is a specification for short-range, point-to- point or point-to-multipoint voice and data transfer Bluetooth can transmit through solid, non-metal objects Its typical link range is from 10 cm to 10 m, but can be extended to 100 m by increasing the power Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

48 48 Bluetooth Bluetooth will enable users to connect to a wide range of computing and telecommunication devices without the need of connecting cables Typical uses include phones, pagers, modems, LAN access devices, headsets, notebooks, desktop computers, and PDAs Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

49 49 Wireless LAN (IEEE ) This technology transmits data between workstations and local area networks using high-speed radio frequencies Current technologies allow up to 54 Mbps (theoretical) data transfer at distances up to hundreds of feet) Three popular standards: IEEE b, a, g) More on this in Chapter Seven (LANs) Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

50 50 Free Space Optics Uses lasers, or more economically, infrared transmitting devices Line of sight between buildings Typically short distances, such as across the street Newer auto-tracking systems keep lasers aligned when buildings shake from wind and traffic Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

51 51 Free Space Optics Current speeds go from T-3 (45 Mbps) to OC-48 (2.5 Gbps) with faster systems in development Major weakness is transmission thru fog A typical FSO has a link margin of about 20 dB Under perfect conditions, air reduces a system’s power by approximately 1 dB/km Scintillation is also a problem (especially in hot weather) Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

52 52 Ultra-wideband (UWB) UWB not limited to a fixed bandwidth but broadcasts over a wide range of frequencies simultaneously Many of these frequencies are used by other sources, but UWB uses such low power that it “should not” interfere with these other sources Can achieve speeds up to 100 Mbps but for small distances such as wireless LANs Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

53 53 Ultra-wideband (UWB) Proponents for UWB say it gets something for nothing, since it shares frequencies with other sources. Opponents disagree Cell phone industry against UWB because CDMA most susceptible to inteference of UWB GPS may also be affected One solution may be to have two types of systems – one for indoors (stronger) and one for outdoors (1/10 the power) Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

54 54 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

55 55 Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

56 56 Media Selection Criteria Cost Speed Distance and expandability Environment Security Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

57 57 Media Selection Criteria - Cost Different types of cost –Initial cost – what does a particular type of medium cost to purchase? To install? –Maintenance / support cost ROI (return on investment) – if one medium is cheaper to purchase and install but is not cost effective, where is the savings? Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

58 58 Media Selection Criteria - Speed Two different forms of speed: –Propagation speed – the time to send the first bit across the medium. This speed depends upon the medium. Airwaves and fiber are speed of light. Copper wire is two thirds the speed of light –Data transfer speed – the time to transmit the rest of the bits in the message. This speed is measured in bits per second Chapter Three - The Media - Conducted and Wireless

59 59 Workshop จงบอกวัตถุประสงค์ของสายคู่บิดเกลียวตั้งแต่ CAT1 – 7 จงบอกความแตกต่างระหว่างสาย baseband และ broadband coaxial จงบอกความแตกต่างระหว่าง terrestrial และ satellite microwave คุณสมบัติใดที่ทำให้สาย UTP CAT5/5e จึงเป็น สื่อที่นิยมใช้กันมากที่สุด จงอธิบายความแตกต่างของ LEO,MEO,GEO และ HEO เทคโนโลยีไร้สายประเภทใดที่สามารถทะลุผ่าน วัตถุทึบแสง และเทคโนโลยีไร้สายใดที่ไม่ สามารถทะลุผ่านวัตถุทึบแสงบ้าง

60 60 Workshop จงเรียงลำดับสื่อต่อไปนี้ ได้แก่ twisted pair, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, microwave, satellite – เรียงลำดับจากอัตราความเร็วในการถ่ายโอน ข้อมูลจากมากไปหาน้อย – เรียงลำดับจากการส่งข้อมูลที่มีสัญญาณรบกวน จากมากไปหาน้อย – เรียงลำดับจากความปลอดภัยของข้อมูลจากมาก ไปหาน้อย หากบริษัทของนักศึกษามีสำนักงานอยู่ 2 แห่ง ตั้งห่างกันประมาณ 1 ไมล์ ต้องการส่งข้อมูล ระหว่างสำนักงาน 2 แห่ง ด้วยอัตราความเร็ว มากกว่า 100 Mbps จงแสดงความเป็นไปได้ใน การเชื่อมต่อระหว่าง 2 สำนักงาน โดยพิจารณา ถึง เชิงเทคนิค, การเงิน และสภาพแวดล้อมด้วย


ดาวน์โหลด ppt 1 Chapter Three The Media – Conducted and Wireless.

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