5การคิดเชิงกลยุทธ์การคิดเชิงกลยุทธ์ เป็นสมรรถนะสำคัญของการเป็นผู้บังคับบัญชาและนักบริหารสมรรถนะของข้าราชการระดับสูง SES/ บริหารระดับกลางความหลากหลายหรือข้อจำกัดของการคิดเชิงกลยุทธ์ ขึ้นอยู่กับมุมมอง: Where you stand is where you sitการใส่ใจต่อเรื่องที่เกี่ยวข้อง (Attention)ประสบการณ์สิ่งแวดล้อมผู้มีส่วนร่วมในกระบวนการคิดเชิงกลยุทธ์สำนักงาน ก.พ.
7การคิดเชิงกลยุทธ์ กับ การคิดเชิงสร้างสรรค์ ความคิดเชิงสร้างสรรค์เน้นการคิดนอกกรอบและนวัตกรรมการคิดเชิงกลยุทธ์เน้นการมีวิสัยทัศน์ ซึ่งจะนำไปสู่การดำเนินการอย่างเป็นรูปธรรมVision without action is just a dreamAction without vision is just an activityการบริหารและการวางแผนเชิงกลยุทธ์สำนักงาน ก.พ.
9ใคร คือ ผู้นำที่ท่านชื่นชม : Ask group to take a minute to think of a leader they admire then to think of the attributes of that leader they most admireDebrief and list on easelIntroduce John Kotter:-Says management is about coping with complexity while leadership is about coping with changeManagers use a deductive process designed to produce orderly results andplan and budgetOrganize and staffControl and problem solveProduce order and predictabilityLEADERS use an inductive process designed to produce change by producing visions and strategiesSet a direction align people motivate and inspire peopleProduce changeREMEMBER—planning is critical but is no substitute to directionGraphically then GO TO NEXT SLIDE
10หน้าที่หลักสี่ประการของผู้นำและผู้บริหาร Creating An Agenda:Creating An Agenda-mgrs set future goal and steps to achieve targets while leaders gather broad range of data, look for patterns, relationships, linkages that help to explain things to produce strategies and visions NOTE visions must serve the interest of org and translate easily into realityDeveloping People-Aligning people is a COMMUNICATION challenge and not a design problem like organizing and staffingEXECUTION-Leaders motivate and inspire which energizes employees by satisfying a basic human need for achievement BUT mgrs control and problem solve only to accomplish THE PLANOUTCOMES produce the change rather than the same old same old
11สามมุมมองเกี่ยวกับผู้นำและผู้บริหาร DistinctLeadershipManagementOverlappingLeadershipManagementTwo-DimensionalPage 7 of ManualTwo Dimensional is the best as it comes from anywhere in the organization and is SITUATIONAL not via the organizational chartLeadership/Management
12ข้อสังเกตเกี่ยวกับความเป็นผู้นำ ไม่ใช่สิ่งที่ทำต่อคน แต่เป็นสิ่งที่ทำร่วมกับคน Not something to do to people, but something you do with peopleเป็นกระบวนการของการโน้มน้าวชักจูงและการทำเป็นตัวอย่าง A process of persuasion & exampleความสามารถในการสร้างความมุ่งมั่นผูกพันและฉันทามติ Ability to gain commitment & consensusเมื่องานชิ้นสำคัญของผู้นำสิ้นสุดลง คนทั้งหลายจะพูดว่า เราทำสำเร็จแล้ว When best leader’s work is done, the people will say, “We did it ourselves!”Let’s look again at the words and phrases you identified as attributes of leaders you admireBREAK
13YOUR LEADERSHIP STYLEEach of us needs to have a clear understanding of how we influence others by our communication styles as well as what the communication styles of others arePage 9 in your manualBEARSthe people peopleShare itCHARACTERISTICS:perceptive, listener, team builder, builds relationships, a leader and teacher BUT also emotional, pushover, goes on feelings rather than tasks, needs approval, talks openlyTURTLES the Information people STUDY ITCharacteristics are calm, stable, organized, loyal, and detail oriented BUT slow to act, boring, nit-pickers, enforcer, avoids risksFROGS the Action People Just Do ITCharacteristics are high energy, dynamic, high levels of initiative, can do spirit, Risk takers BUT pushy, Impatient, poor listeners, tyrant, overlooks others.GIRAFFE the Visionary People Dream ITCHARACTERISTICS are strategist, see the big picture, creative, outsiders, synthesizers BUT also dreamers to the extreme, impractical, rebels, cheerleaders, neglect detailsTake 5 minutes and read each description and consider the descriptors-after reading all of them assign a percentage to each style for yourself. List them at bottom of page.1st DebriefAnyone have a tie or ties for the animals?What is you prominent type-call out each and give labelPlace in group with easel and give the following directions:20 minutes-draw a picture-no words-which describes how your type gets work done and how it communicates with othersSelect a spokesperson and report to full group-2nd Debrief note that all instinctively go to positivesHave been focusing on your own group but what would happen at the workforce if the diversity of all the animals was not present?GO TO BLACKOUTAnother issue of leadership is the issue of power—Ask the group---What is Power “the ability to get what you want” then ask “Where does power come from then go to next slide
14การแสดงภาวะผู้นำ Formally Authority Informally Influence Influencing when you no not have the AUTHOIRTY requires that you have powerFrom where is that power derived?French and Raven have identified 5 major bases of powerNEXT SLIDE
15ฐานหรือแหล่งที่มาของอำนาจ Reward PowerCoercive PowerLegitimate PowerReferent PowerExpert PowerInformation PowerConnection PowerREWARD-ability to give monetary and non-monetary rewardsCOERCIVE-ability to threaten or punish (always has a negative correlation with employee satisfaction and effectiveness)LEGITIMATE-followers assign to the leader the right to leadREFERENT-workers admiration and desire to identify with the leader as a person (most closely associated with + performance)EXPERT- based on leader’s job knowledge and expertiseAfter Expert Power note that other social scientists have added 2 other sources of powerINFORMATION-what the leader knows, current info etc-different that job knowledgeCONNECTION-who you knowLet’s take the time to take about the tools a leader uses to influence without authority (NEXT SLIDE)8
16เครื่องมือและกลยุทธ์การเป็นผู้นำ CommunicationRewardsBuilding trustBuilding coalitionsStrategies forinfluenceCOMMUNICATION-can inspire or not depending on the written , verbal, and nonverbal techniques usedREWARDS-praise, info sharing, recognition any others?BUILDING TRUST-telling the truth, acting ethically BUT not holier than thou, backing up subordinates, allowing subordinates to fail and learnBUILDING COALITIONS-with peers, subordinates, superiors—gaining allies thru respect, reciprocity, affiliation, and perceived mutual interestsStrategies for Influence-know both the tangible and intangible currencies of the organizationPage 13 in ManualCohen and Bradford have identified 5 Categories PG 13 Look and discussRelated toInspirationTaskPositionRelationshipPersonalClose for AM with next slide
17ผู้นำ คือ คนที่: กล้าเสี่ยง Takes risks มีคุณธรรมและจริยธรรม Is ethicalกล้าตัดสินใจ Is decisiveสามารถสอนและพัฒนาผู้อื่น Coaches and develops staffสร้างความเชื่อถือศรัทธา Creates trustIn summary: we haveIdentified the differences between leadership and managementLearned about our own leadership and communication stylesExplored the issues of power and influenceAnd established that a leader (slide)
18A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.LEADERS produce change by motivating, inspiring, and developing people-they achieve results thought other people and in many cases through the use of teamsHR can provide leadership to the organization in building teams and coaching and developing staffLARGE GROUP EXERCISE: Think of time you were on a team, what was purpose, the size, was it functional or dysfunctional and why?DEBRIEF on easel with lists of why functional and dysfunctionalTHEN show Katzenbach and Smith definition on slideSMALL GROUP EXERCISE: HR has important role in teambuilding-use exercise on pg 15 to demonstratePage 15 HR HELPS A STATE COLLECT TAXES20 minutes-read, discuss, answer questions on page 16 –select a spokesperson and report to large groupsSTRESS HR COMPETENCIES IN DEBRIEF-Understands team behaviorCommunicates wellAssesses and balances competing valuesPossess good analytical skillsuses consultation and negotiationWhat is a Team?
19Fostering Team Behavior GO TO BLACK SCREEN BEFORE THIS SLIDETeams are not for every purposeMost effective when there is a specific performance challenge that requires collective work and the integration of many skills, perspectives, and or experiencesIF only need to get things done across functions(silos) the use of working groups is useful (no collective work product is necessary only the sum of the individual effortsWorking groups can become teams if they developRules and CommitmentsRoles and ResponsibilitiesIndividual and mutual accountability is establishedHold themselves accountable for end resultRecognize that any member of the team can lead the team toward higher performanceGO TO SLIDEKatzenbach and Smith’s graphic whichDemonstrates the process of leading to high performance from a work group to a team
20Continuum in Decision-Making Leader Centered Group CenteredUse of authority by LeaderArea of Freedom of the GroupDirectiveBegins with leader decides and announces and moves toleader sells the decision to the group and moves toleader announces decision and permits questions then moves toleader presents tentative decision, consults group, then decides then moves toleader presents the problem and asks for ideas and then decides then moves toleader gives group as much freedom as possible to define the problem and decideSMALL GROUP EXERCIES (optional depending on time)Page Privatizing Sanitation Services focus on Q’s 1 and minutes then debriefBREAKDirective Assertive Persuader Consultative Collaborative
21Primary Decision Procedures AutocraticGroup decision-makingMove now to Leadership and Decision Making page 19 in manual`Leaders must understand the advantages and disadvantages of each type of decision makingGO through eachAnother way top look at this is a Decision Making Continuum (next slide)Consultation
22Decision Making AUTOCRATIC CONSULTATIVE GROUP CENTERED (A) Decides and Announces(B) Sells decisionto group(C) Announces andpermits questions(D) Presents possible one, gets input, then decides(E) Presents problem, gets ideas, then decides(F) Presents problem, and boundaries, group decides(G) Gives group freedom to define problem and decide
23Interest-Based Negotiating PeopleInterestsOptionsCriteriaIn the Change Agent Module you covered negotiation, mediation, and win-win goals. Those things are also important to the HR Leader however, we are not going to revisit that material. Would like to stress the component of Interest Based Negotiating (win-win) which are:Separate the people from the problemFocus on interests NOT positionsInvent options for mutual gainsInsist on objective criteriaConflict Resolution is a major challenge to the HR Leader, it is therefore important that you know your own approach/reaction to conflict resolution in order to be prepared to be successful-we are going to spend some time with exploring that topic nowGo TO Black and use notes on next slide
24Modes of Conflict Resolution CompetingCollaboratingCompromisingAvoidingAccomodatingSTART WITH BLACKOUT HEREDiscuss 2 basic dimensions i.e.Assertive-the extent of self concernCooperative-the extent of attempts to satisfy other’s concernsPass Out Killman InventoryExplain and tell them to stop at page 5Go to page 6 and circle answer they gave then total them at the bottom so they now have 5 numbers at the bottomDebrief stressing the in of page 6-Turn to page 8 and do percentiles and graph -shows where you fit with those who took this to validate itThen turn to page 9 and point out model and the dimensions(go to page 9) Use SLIDE NOWCompeting=assertive and uncooperativeCollaborating=assertive and cooperativeCompromising=intermediate in both assertiveness and cooperativenessAvoiding=unassertive and uncooperativeAccommodating=unassertive and cooperativeTo Page 10-have them read then break into groups to discuss the following question “Which of the modes is the most important for an HR Leader and why?”Debrief making the point that they all are-depends on the situationFinally discuss content and use of pages 12-16To Final Slide
25Goals of Mediation Vent feelings and reduce hostilities Clear up misunderstandingsDetermine underlying interests or concernsFind areas of agreementIncorporate areas of agreement into the solution(s) devised by the parties
26Effective Negotiation Establish and enforce ground rulesDetermine if a written mediation agreement is necessaryDetermine if the parties have authority to settle
28A Consultant has:Some influence...No direct power...
29The Expert Consultant’s Role -Develops the Solution-Solves the ProblemCLIENT-Passive-Accepts the Solution-Judges if problem is solved
30The Pair of Hands Role CONSULTANT -Carries out Client’s Solution -Makes all decisions-Maintains control
31The Collaborative Role CONSULTANT-Shares all Phases-Collaborates and Negotiates-Provides ExpertiseCLIENT-Equal partner-Knows the organizational problem-Learns how to solve future problems
32Equal Employment Opportunity HR Leadership requires the primary competency of Understands and values diversity but what is diversity? Often confused with EEO and AAEEO protects individuals rights and ensures fairness in employment processes and decisions-and is essentially neutral unless laws are violated.AA designed to promote a more representative workforce and to remedy the effects of past acts of discrimination-requires a positive actionBoth are imposed from the outside the organizationDiversity comes from within the organization and describes the full range of employee characteristics present in our population and workforce-it is an inclusive program including all employees and all HR programs related to organizational effectivenessComes about due to an internal demand from management for enhanced productivity and comprises an effort to describe and understand the range of attributes that members of diverse cultures bring to the organizationSmall Group ExercisePage 26 and 27Time 20 minutes then debriefAffirmative ActionDiversity in the Workplace
33ความแตกต่างของช่วงอายุ : Peter Sheahan ประเด็นความสนใจBaby BoomersGeneration XGeneration Yนักร้องชรินทร์ นันทนาครธงไชย แม็คอินไตยฟิล์ม รัฐภูมิ/ บี้ดนตรีวิทยุ/แผ่นเสียงเทป/แผ่นซีดีiPods, MP3คอมพิวเตอร์เกมส์?PackmanRockNarakเงินต้องหาไม่ใช่ทุกอย่างเอามาซิความจงรักภักดีต่อองค์กรทำงานเพื่อไปถึงจุดสูงสุด Live to Workหาเส้นทางลัดสู่จุดสูงสุดถ้าไม่ให้หยุดวันเสาร์ ผมขอลาออกWork to Liveการเคารพผู้ใหญ่อัตโนมัติสุภาพยังไงก็ได้Sexหลังแต่งงานหลังรถ (เบาะหลัง)ออนไลน์การเปลี่ยนแปลงต่อต้านยอมรับต้องการเทคโนโลยีไม่สนใจไม่มีปัญหาอยู่ในลมหายใจ
34Ethical Behavior is doing what is Right In the public sector we are particularly sensitive to merit principles as well as other issues of ethics and integrity-this means-treating people with dignity and respect-avoiding conflicts of interest including the appearance of conflict of interest-avoiding favoritism-respecting confidentiality and privacy of our customers-Obeying the spirit and the letter of the lawWhile ethical behavior is doing what is right, it is not always easy to discern…..Q to group-what ethical issues have arisen in your organizations then discuss why they occurred (could HR have helped make a difference?)2nd Q to large group-”Why do some employees act unethically?”(good intentions, ignorance of lows, policies etc, ego trip, greed, friendship, ideology, personal or family gain, financial problems or pressures, stupidity, going along ie group think, following orders, survival) (Al Higham story)HR competencies are practices and promotes integrity and ethical behavior and assess and balances competing valuesThen to next slide
35EthicsEthics is a management responsibility & human resources should assume a leadership role in assisting managersPrinciples for managing ethics developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)Asian Development Bank (ADB) & OECD anti-corruption initiative for Asia & PacificAdditional information available at
38The Power of Engaged Employees SayConsistently speak positively about the organization to co-workers, potential employees, and customers.StayHave an intense desire to be a member of the organizationStriveExert extra effort and engage in behaviors that contribute to business success