2Main characteristics Somatic stage Coenocytic hyphae Haploid Cell wall are mainly chitin, chitosan and polyglucosamineSpindle pole bodyReproductionAsexual reproduction by production of sporangiospores(aplanospore) in most zygomycotaSexual reproduction by formation of a thick walled restingspore termed “zygospore”u
4Sexual reproduction: Hormonal control of zygospore formation Minus strain Plus strainb-carotene b-caroteneretinal retinalTrisporal dehydrotrisporic acid4-dehydrotrisporic acid TrisporalTrisporic acid Trisporic acidDiffusion
5Azygospore, what is it? Azygospore is a spore developed 10 umAzygospore is a spore developeddirectly from a (female) gametewithout conjugation
10Order Mucorales: Mucor and Rhizopus Separate from other order by conbination of sexual and asexualreproductionMost are saprobes on organic debries, humus, dung, and soilPrimary colonizers of substrates containing accessible carbonsources like sugar or starch.Fast-growingSome species produce rhizoid to contact a hard surfaceตัวอย่าง ราขนมปัง รา strawberriesu
12Order Mucorales: Cheese 1. The milk is usually pasteurised by heating at 72°C for 15 seconds todestroy potentially harmful bacteria.2. The milk is then cooled to around 30°C.3. A starter culture of lactic acid bacteria is added to help souring.4. A strater culture of rennet producing microorganisms such asMucor miehei is added to help in the coagulation process.
13Order Mucorales: Pilobolus Pilobolus crystallinus is coprophilous (dung-inhabiting) withunbranched sporangiophores are 2-4 cm tall, and have a uniqueexplosive dispersal mechanism.
14Zygomycosis: Disease from Zygomycota Lady with Mucormycosisการก่อเกิดโรคในคน โดยราใน divisionZygomycota อาจทำให้เกิดโรคในชั้นใต้ผิวหนัง หรือก่อโรคที่อวัยวะภายในได้ตัวอย่างราที่ก่อให้เกิดโรคได้แก่ราในสกุลRhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, absidia,Basidiobolus และ Conidiobolus
15Order Entomophthorales uAs the name implies, these fungi are insect pathogensMycelium may become divided by septa into uni- or multi-nucleate compartmentSomatic protoplasts are a common featureAsexual reproduction by sporangiospore or conidiosporeSexual reproduction by zygospore formation but it is not well knownuuuuEntomophthora muscae infects, and eventuallykills, houseflies. Dying flies, their bodies riddledby the fungus, usually crawl into exposedsituations where the fungal infection burststhrough the insects' exoskeleton and producestightly-packed masses of sporangiophores (left).
16Order Entomophthorales Each sporangiophore bears one unicellular, sticky mitosporangium that is shot awayat maturity. When the fly dies on a window, this barrage produces a whitish halo ofmitosporangia on the glass. These sporangia can infect other unsuspecting fliesthat come to pay their last respects. As you may already have guessed, species ofEntomophthora are being investigated for their potential in biological control ofinsect pests.
17Order GlomalesuVesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) on angiosperm, gymnosperm,pteridophyte, bryophyte and algaeArbuscule or vesicle (if swelling) is a haustorium-like structure that functionas energy storesSpores are usually produced in soil or chlamydospores productionAzygospore sometimes present, but zygospore are not confirmeduuu
19Class TrichomycetesCoenocytic or septate hyphae usually with “holdfast cell”Obligately associated inside the gut of living arthropods(insects, millipeds and crustacean)Asexual reproduction by amoeboid cell, arthrospore, sporangiosporeor “trichospore”Sexual reproduction by biconical structures referred to as zygospore,i.e. Harpellalesu
20Class Trichomycetes: Somatic and reproductive structure Picture from Introductory Mycology (1996) Page 173 Fig. 6-1