A Framework for Market (Industrial) Analysis structuresconductsperformance production/cost market structures pricing advertising sales promotion diversification integration profit growth potential for competion in global market
The Five Competitive Forces that Determine Company Profitability Industry competitors Potential Entrants substitutes suppliers buyers
How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy” Michale E. porter positioning the company so that its capabilities provide the best defense against the competitive forces; influencing the balance of forces through strategic moves; and anticipating shifts in the factors underlying competitive forces.
ตัวอย่างการวิเคราะห์การ ประเมินผล การศึกษา และ สาธารณสุข Sanjeev Gupta, Keiko Honjo and Marijn Verhoeven The Efficiency of Government Expenditure: Experiences form Africa IMF Working Paper November 1997 www.imf.org
The Public Economics of Education 1. Market Analysis in education 2. Investment in Human Capital 3. Efficiency Analysis 4. Income Distribution: Education expenditure Incidence Education Lorenz curve 5. Educational Financing
Production function Parametric production functionNonparametric production function กำหนดรูปแบบที่แน่นอนของฟังก์ชั่น คำนวณหาค่า parameters ของฟังก์ชั่น
Freely Disposable Hull (FDH) output input Y(B) Y(A) A X(A)X(B) B C D b
Output Efficiency Score (OES) OES แสดงถึงจำนวนผลผลิตที่หน่วยผลิตที่ไม่มีประสิทธิภาพ จะผลิตได้มากขึ้นในการใช้จำนวนปัจจัยการผลิตเท่าเดิมหรือน้อยกว่า หน่วยผลิต B มี OES = ผลผลิตของหน่วยผลิตที่ไม่มีประสิทธิภาพ Y(B) ผลผลิตของหน่วยผลิตที่มีประสิทธิภาพ Y(A) 0 < OES < 1 Y(B) = 25 Y(A) = 50, OES = 25/50 = 0.5 = 50%
Educational Inputs and Outputs educational inputsspending per student spending per student as a share of per-capita GDP educational outputs percentage of the population that completes education at a normal graduation age
Porter’s Vision of Cluster Strategy Clusters represent a new way of thinking about national, state, and local economies, and they necessitate new roles for companies, government, and other institutions in enhancing competitiveness. “Location, Competition and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy” Economic Development Quarterly 14, no. 1, February 2000: 15-34.
Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, and associated institutions in a particular field that are present in a nation or region. Clusters arise because they increase the productivity with which companies can compete. The development and upgrading of clusters is an important agenda for governments, companies, and other institutions. Cluster development initiatives are an important new direction in economic policy, building on earlier efforts in macroeconomic stabilization, privatization, market opening, and reducing the costs of doing business
Clusters and Comparative Advantage 1. increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; 2. driving the direction and pace of innovation; 3. stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. 4. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, "Clusters and the New Economics of Competition” Harvard Business Review, November-December 1998
sets an action agenda to drive U.S. economic competitiveness and leadership in world markets in order to raise the standard of living for all Americans. Its focus is on strengthening U.S. innovation, upgrading the workforce, and benchmarking national economic performance. Working with Professor Porter and the Institute, the Council has undertaken an initiative to examine how clusters form, why they are critical to a region's economic future, and how regional stakeholders can help its clusters thrive US Council on Competitiveness www.council.org
Capitalism and Social Progress Economic policy and social policy have been largely separate agendas involving different participants. Many see the two as conflicting agendas because of the flaws in the capitalist system. However, there is no inherent conflict between capitalism and social needs. A productive and growing economy requires rising skill levels, a proliferation of new companies, safe working conditions, healthy workers who live in decent housing in safe neighborhoods, and a sense of opportunity. Social and economic policy must be integrated in addressing society’s ills and ensuring true progress
Business and Social Progress Businesses that wish to survive and thrive in a global economy must respond to major social and environmental trends that are reshaping markets. This report outlines 19 trends that are reshaping global markets and discusses the rising interest in using market solutions to address some of the world's most pressing problems. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development is a coalition of 170 international companies united by a shared commitment to sustainable development via the three pillars of economic growth, ecological balance and social progress. (www.wbcsd.org)