6 Functionalism as a Sociological Perspective ค้นใน http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc /T&M/funct.htm Functionalism is often referred to as ‘consensus’ theory because it doesn’t address the issue of conflict in society, rather it projects and ideal picture of harmonious social relationships.
7 Historical Background It emerged in Europe in the 19th century as a response to what was perceived as a crisis of social order. This crisis seemed to be the result of two developments: - 1.The emergence of a new industrial society with it’s subsequent loss of community – poor working conditions, increase in crime, growth of housing slums, poverty etc. 2.The French revolution which suggested ideals of equality, happiness and freedom of the individual.
8 Main ideas in Functionalism The starting point of all Functionalism is that all societies have certain basic needs - Functional requirements which must be met if a society is to survive. Functionalists are therefore concerned with the contribution the various parts of a society make towards those needs. All Functionalism is concerned with the basic need and desirability for social order and stability to prevail in society.
9 Explaining Social Order In explaining the basis of social order in societies the starting point for Functionalists is to look at whole societies and not the individual; they explore the ways in which the various parts which make up a society function to maintain social order.
10 Structural Functionalism ดูรายละเอียดใน http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072817186/student_view0/chapter7/c hapter_summary.html interested in large-scale social structures and institutions within society, how they interrelate, and their constraining effects on actors.
11 เรียน functionalism ผ่าน the functional theory of stratification.
12 Talcott Parsons (1902-1979). The heart of Parsons's theory is built on the four functional imperatives, also known as the AGIL system:
13 the AGIL system 1.The adaptive function, whereby a system adapts to its environment. 2.The goal-attainment function, i.e., how a system defines and achieves its goals. 3.The integrative function, or the regulation of the components of the system. 4.Latency, or pattern maintenance function, i.e., how motivation and the dimensions of culture that create and sustain motivation are stimulated.
14 four action systems, each of which serve a functional imperative: 1.the behavioral organism performs the adaptive function; 2.the personality system performs goal attainment; 3.the social system performs the integrative function; and 4.the cultural system performs pattern maintenance.