3 Element An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means. The smallest part of an element that has all the properties of that element is an atom.
4 Mineral A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid definite chemical composition crystal structure. **It must have all five of the characteristics described in this definition.**
5 Rocks A rock is a hard substance composed of one or more minerals. A rock can also be made of or contain naturally occurring substances that do not perfectly fit the definition of a mineral. Rocks can be composed of volcanic glass or of opal. Both of these substances lack a crystalline structure.
21 Crystal Form Takes Luck & Practice Well-formed crystals are uncommon Crystal Classification is somewhat subtle From solutions, melts, and vapors Evaporation of solvent, cooling, reduction of pressure
25 Geologic Setting S ome minerals occur in all geologic settings: quartz, feldspar, pyrite S ome minerals occur mostly in sedimentary settings: calcite, dolomite S ome minerals occur mostly in igneous settings: olivine S ome minerals occur mostly in metamorphic settings: garnet, kyanite
26 Special Properties Some minerals can be identified by special properties. Magnetite is naturally magnetic. Fluorite glows under ultraviolet light. Halite tastes salty. Sulfur smells like rotten eggs. Calcite fizzes when hydrochloric acid is added to. Uraninite is radioactive.
27 Minerals By Class Minerals can be organized, mainly according to their chemistry
28 Minerals By Class (1) Elements ClassElements Class: The Metals and their alloys and the Nonmetals. Sulfides ClassSulfides Class: The Sulfides, the Selenides, the Tellurides, the Arsenides, the Antimonides, the Bismuthinides and the Sulfosalts. Halides ClassHalides Class: The Fluorides, the Chlorides and the Iodides. Oxides ClassOxides Class: The Oxides and the Hydroxides. Carbonates ClassCarbonates Class: The Carbonates, the Nitrates and the Borates.
29 Minerals By Class (2) Sulfates ClassSulfates Class: The Sulfates, the Sulfites, the Chromates, the Molybdates, the Selenates, the Selenites, the Tellurates, the Tellurites and the Tungstates (or the Wolframates). Phosphates ClassPhosphates Class: The Phosphates, the Arsenates, the Vanadates and the Antimonates. Silicates ClassSilicates Class: The Silicates (the largest class). The Organics Class:The Organics Class: The "Minerals" composed of organic chemicals! The MineraloidsThe Mineraloids: The "Minerals" that lack crystal structure!
30 Major Mineral Suites Elements Metallic:Au, Ag, Cu Not Al, Pb, Zn, Fe, etc. Nonmetallic: C - Diamond, Graphite Sulfur
31 Major Mineral Suites SULFIDES: Dense, Usually Metallic Many Major Ores Pyrite FeS 2 Chalcopyrite CuFeS 2 Galena PbS Sphalerite ZnS 2 Molybdenite MoS 2 Major Cause of Acid Rain
32 Major Mineral Suites HALIDES: Usually Soft, Often Soluble Halite NaCl Fluorite CaF 2 SULFATES: Soft, Light Color Gypsum CaSO 4 Barite BaSO 4
33 Major Mineral Suites OXIDES: Often Variable, Some Ores Hematite Fe 2 O 3 Bauxite Al(OH) 3 (a hydroxide) Corundum Al 2 O 3 (Ruby, Sapphire) CARBONATES: Fizz in Acid, Give off CO 2 Calcite CaCO 3 Dolomite CaMg (CO 3 ) 2
34 Carbonates Principal Components of limestone and dolostone Storehouse for CO 2