3ElementAn element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.The smallest part of an element that has all the properties of that element is an atom.
4Mineral A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid definite chemical compositioncrystal structure.**It must have all five of the characteristics described in this definition.**
5Rocks A rock is a hard substance composed of one or more minerals. A rock can also be made of or contain naturally occurring substances that do not perfectly fit the definition of a mineral.Rocks can be composed of volcanic glass or of opal. Both of these substances lack a crystalline structure.
25Geologic SettingSome minerals occur in all geologic settings: quartz, feldspar, pyriteSome minerals occur mostly in sedimentary settings: calcite, dolomiteSome minerals occur mostly in igneous settings: olivineSome minerals occur mostly in metamorphic settings: garnet, kyanite
26Some minerals can be identified by special properties. Magnetite is naturally magnetic.Fluorite glows under ultraviolet light.Halite tastes salty.Sulfur smells like rotten eggs.Calcite fizzes when hydrochloric acid is added to .Uraninite is radioactive.
27Minerals By ClassMinerals can be organized, mainly according to their chemistry
28Minerals By Class(1)Elements Class: The Metals and their alloys and the Nonmetals.Sulfides Class: The Sulfides, the Selenides, the Tellurides, the Arsenides, the Antimonides, the Bismuthinides and the Sulfosalts.Halides Class: The Fluorides, the Chlorides and the Iodides.Oxides Class: The Oxides and the Hydroxides.Carbonates Class: The Carbonates, the Nitrates and the Borates.
29Minerals By Class(2)Sulfates Class: The Sulfates, the Sulfites, the Chromates, the Molybdates,the Selenates, the Selenites, the Tellurates, the Tellurites andthe Tungstates (or the Wolframates).Phosphates Class: The Phosphates, the Arsenates, the Vanadatesand the Antimonates.Silicates Class: The Silicates (the largest class).The Organics Class: The "Minerals" composed of organic chemicals!The Mineraloids: The "Minerals" that lack crystal structure!
30Major Mineral Suites Elements Metallic:Au, Ag, Cu Not Al, Pb, Zn, Fe, etc.Nonmetallic: C - Diamond, GraphiteSulfur
31Major Mineral Suites SULFIDES: Dense, Usually Metallic Many Major Ores Pyrite FeS2Chalcopyrite CuFeS2Galena PbSSphalerite ZnS2Molybdenite MoS2Major Cause of Acid Rain
32Major Mineral Suites HALIDES: Usually Soft, Often Soluble Halite NaCl Fluorite CaF2SULFATES: Soft, Light ColorGypsum CaSO4Barite BaSO4
33Major Mineral Suites OXIDES: Often Variable, Some Ores Hematite Fe2O3 Bauxite Al(OH) 3 (a hydroxide)Corundum Al2O3 (Ruby, Sapphire)CARBONATES: Fizz in Acid, Give off CO2Calcite CaCO3Dolomite CaMg (CO3)2
34Carbonates Principal Components of limestone and dolostone Storehouse for CO2