งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

วิชา 104 107 Man and Environment 4 (4- 0-8) ภาคการศึกษาที่ 1 ปีการศึกษา 2549 Environment of Human Population: The Biotic Environments: โดย อ. มงคล ผจงธนสฤษฏ์

งานนำเสนอที่คล้ายกัน


งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "วิชา 104 107 Man and Environment 4 (4- 0-8) ภาคการศึกษาที่ 1 ปีการศึกษา 2549 Environment of Human Population: The Biotic Environments: โดย อ. มงคล ผจงธนสฤษฏ์"— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:

1

2 วิชา Man and Environment 4 (4- 0-8) ภาคการศึกษาที่ 1 ปีการศึกษา 2549 Environment of Human Population: The Biotic Environments: โดย อ. มงคล ผจงธนสฤษฏ์ วันที่ 29 มิถุนายน 2549 เวลา น. ณ อาคารเรียนรวม ห้อง B3103 Flora & Fauna - Biomes of the World -

3

4 F L O R A รุกขชาติในท้องถิ่น หรือในช่วง ระยะเวลาใดๆ (list of the plants of an area or period)

5 F A U N A บรรดาสัตว์ในท้องถิ่น ในช่วง เวลา หรือในสภาวะแวดล้อม พิเศษใดๆ (the animals characteristic of a region, period, or special environment)

6 B I O M E Large ecosystem characterized by similar plant/vegetation, animal, and climate –There are various terrestrial biomes –and two aquatic (freshwater and salt-water) biomes

7

8 Some of the Biomes on Earth (1) - Terrestrial - Desert –very dry, either hot or cold Tropical Rain Forest –warm and very wet Grassland –Windy, grass with few trees

9 Some of the Biomes on Earth (2) - Terrestrial - Deciduous Forest –cool and rainy, with deciduous trees Tundra –cool, treeless, and dry Coniferous Forest (Taiga) –cool and dry, with coniferous trees

10 Some of the Biomes on Earth (3) - Aquatic - Wetlands - many types, including swamps, marshes, bogs, fens, sloughs, etc. Marine –benthic biomes (bottom) –coral reef (warm shallow salt- water environments) –pelagic biomes (open seas near the surface) –estuarine biomes (where rivers meet oceans)

11 DESERT

12 DESERT Deserts cover about 18-20% of the Earth's land area Insects, reptiles (especially lizards), birds and small mammals reside in the desert, many active only at night

13

14 DESERT Temperature: Average of 38 O C (day), -3.9 O C (night) Precipitation: About 250 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Cacti, small bushes, short grasses Location: Between 15 O and 35 O latitude (North and South of the equator); examples are Mojave, Sonoran, Chihuahua, and Great Basin (North America); Sahara (Africa); Negev (Middle East); and Gobi (Asia) Other: Perennials survive for several years by becoming dormant and flourishing when water is available. Annuals are referred to as ephemerals because some can complete an entire life cycle in weeks. Example: El-Oasr el-Akhdar, Egypt

15 น้ำและสิ่งมีชีวิตใน ทะเลทราย ในทะเลทรายที่แห้งแล้งบางแห่งอาจไม่ มีฝนตกเลยเป็นระยะเวลาหลายปี เช่น ในชิลีไม่ได้รับน้ำฝนมากกว่า 20 ปี ดังนั้นจึงไม่มีสิ่งมีชีวิตในบริเวณนั้น ในทะเลทรายอื่น ๆ บางครั้งอาจพบ แหล่งน้ำฝนที่ขังอยู่บ้าง บางครั้งก็เป็น น้ำใต้ดิน ในบริเวณนั้นจะมีสิ่งมีชีวิต หลายชนิดที่อาศัยแหล่งน้ำพวกนี้ในการ ดำรงชีวิต

16 พืชที่อยู่ในทะเลทราย มีลำต้นอ่อนนิ่ม ฉ่ำไปด้วยน้ำ มีขี้ผึ้งฉาบ อยู่รอบใบและลำต้น – ได้แก่ พวกกระบองเพชร หรือไม้พุ่มผลัด ใบ ฤดูที่พืชพวกนี้เจริญเติบโตมีเวลาสั้น ช่วงที่มีดอกเกิดขึ้นอย่างสวยงามคือเมื่อ มีฝนตก

17 Desert Plant Adaptations Some flowering desert plants are ephemeral; –They live for a few days. Their seeds lie dormant in the soil, sometimes for years, until a soaking rain enables them to germinate and quickly bloom Desert plants usually have small leaves. –This conserves water by reducing surface area from which transpiration can take place

18 Desert Plant Adaptations Other plants drop their leaves during the dry period Woody desert plants either: –have long root systems that reach deep water sources or –have spreading shallow roots that are able to take up surface moisture quickly from heavy dews and occasional rains

19 Desert Plant Adaptations Desert plants are succulents, storing water in leaves, stems, and roots Thorns, modified leaves, guard the water from animal invaders These plants may take in and store carbon dioxide only at night; during the day their stomata, or pores, are closed to prevent evaporation.

20 สัตว์ต่างๆ ในทะเลทราย พบในบริเวณที่มีพืชเกิดขึ้น ขุดรูอยู่ใต้ดินในตอนกลางวันและออก หากินในเวลากลางคืน – เช่น กระรอก สัตว์เลื้อยคลาน แมลง แมงมุม แมงป่อง

21 Desert Animal Adaptations Amphibian species mature rapidly, mate, and lay eggs Many birds and rodents reproduce only periods of winter rain that stimulate the growth of vegetation Some desert rodents are extremely efficient at conserving and recycling water, their urine is highly concentrated

22 Desert Animal Adaptations Most desert mammals and reptiles are nocturnal, remaining in cool underground burrows or in the shade by day Some desert reptiles can control their metabolic heat production by varying their rate of heartbeat and the rate of body metabolism

23 TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

24 TROPICAL RAINFORESTS Located near the equator Cover less than 10% of the Earth's surface, but provide a habitat for 50 to 90% of the world's plant and animal species

25 TROPICAL RAIN FOREST Temperature: 20 O C to 25 O C, must remain warm and frost-free Precipitation: 2,000 to 10,000 millimeters of rain per year Vegetation: Vines, palm trees, orchids, ferns Location: Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn Other: There are two types of rainforests, tropical and temperate. Tropical rainforests are found closer to the equator and temperate rainforests are found farther north near coastal areas. The majority of common houseplants come from the rainforest. Example: Campa Pita, Belize

26 Characteristics Greatest diversity of species Near the equator, within the area bounded by latitudes 23.5 degrees N and 23.5 degrees S Distinct seasonality: winter is absent, and only two seasons are present (rainy and dry) Daylight is 12 hours and varies little.

27 Characterized by rapid plant growth, thick forest canopy, and a huge diversity of animal species A multitude of insects and other invertebrates thrive along with birds, monkey, snakes and lizard

28 Flora is highly diverse: one square kilometer may contain as many as 100 different tree species. –Trees are m tall, with buttressed trunks and shallow roots, mostly evergreen, with large dark green leaves. –Plants such as orchids, bromeliads, vines, ferns, mosses, and palms are present in tropical forests.

29 Fauna include numerous birds, bats, small mammals, and insects.

30 EMERGENTS: Giant trees - houses many birds and insects. CANOPY: The upper parts - full of life in a tropical rainforest and includes: insects, birds, reptiles, mammals, and more. UNDERSTORY: A dark, cool environment under the leaves but over the ground. FOREST FLOOR: Teeming with animal life, especially insects. The largest animals in the rainforest generally live here.

31 Rain Forest Plants Large leaves are commonly found especially where light is low and transpiration reduced due to the high humidity Many trees have thin, smooth bark because there is little need to conserve water, while others are armed with spikes or thorns for protection.

32 Rain Forest Plants Some trees have large fleshy fruits to attract the birds and animals that disperse the seeds Epiphytes ( กาฝาก ) are plants that root on the trees Climbers are woody vines ( เถาวัลย์ ) that grow high into the canopy

33 Rain Forest Animals Many endemic species are found in rainforests Sometimes living on only one type of food plant Being active at certain times of the day Adaptations for living in the high canopy include flying, gliding, and prehensile tails

34 Rain Forest Animals Ground-dwelling forest mammals include large cats, such as tigers and jaguars, pigs, and many species of rodent Bird and reptile species occur in each of the forest layers -bright colouring and distinctive calls patterning Many species have effective camouflage behaviours

35 The deforestation technique of slash and burn causes environmental damage: –carbon dioxide adds to the greenhouse effect –destroys animal habitats –accelerates erosion –adding to the sediment loads of rivers –making seasonal flooding much more severe

36 GRASSLAND

37 GRASSLAND Large parts of grasslands are now planted with wheat, barley, and maize Most famous animal are the large grazers and browsers of the savannah, –lion, cheetah, elephant, rhinoceros, giraffe, buffalo, zebra and numerous species of antelopes

38 GRASSLAND Temperature: Dependent on latitude, yearly range can be between -20 O C to 30 O C Precipitation: About 500 to 900 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Grasses (prairie clover, salvia, oats, wheat, barley, coneflowers) Location: The prairies of the Great Plains of North America, the pampas of South America, the veldt of South Africa, the steppes of Central Eurasia, and surrounding the deserts in Australia Other: Found on every continent except Antarctica Example: Ingeniera White, Argentina

39 สิ่งมีชีวิตในชุมชนที่เป็น ทุ่งหญ้า สัตว์ที่อาศัยอยู่ตามทุ่งหญ้ามีมากและอุดม สมบูรณ์แตกต่างกันไป เช่น พวกสัตว์เลี้ยงลูก ด้วยนม สัตว์กีบ และสัตว์แทะ เช่น กวาง สุนัข กระรอก สุนัขป่า ไก่ป่า นกกระจอก แมลงต่าง ๆ ทุ่งหญ้าในประเทศไทยไม่ได้เป็นทุ่งโล่ง อย่างในบางประเทศ แต่ในประเทศไทยจะมี ทุ่งหญ้าแถบภาคกลางและภาค ตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือซึ่งเหมาะกับการเลี้ยง สัตว์ควบคู่ไปกับการเพาะปลูก

40 There are 2 main divisions of grasslands: 1.tropical grassland, called savanna 2.temperate grassland

41 Savanna Grassland with scattered individual trees Cover almost half the surface of Africa (about five million square miles, generally central Africa) and large areas of Australia, South America, and India

42 Prairies are grasslands with tall grasses Steppes are grasslands with short grasses

43 DECIDUOUS FOREST

44 DECIDUOUS FOREST deciduous trees (shed their leaves annually) winters are long, but not as harsh as Taiga animal life is varied and includes ground squirrels, foxes, bears, mice, snakes, rabbits, lizards, and deers

45 DECIDUOUS FOREST Temperature: -30 O C to 30 O C, yearly average is 10 O C, hot summers, cold winters Precipitation: 750 to 1,500 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses Location: Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan Other: Temperate deciduous forests are most notable because they go through four seasons. Leaves change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back in the spring; this adaptation allows plants to survive cold winters. Example: Staunton, Virginia, United States

46 Fall ColorsFall Colors In the Fall, the number of hours of daylight decreases This causes deciduous trees to stop producing chlorophyll and eventually lose their leaves During this time, these leaves turn brilliant colors, ranging from red to orange to yellow to brown

47 TUNDRA

48 TUNDRA Long, severe winters and cool, brief summers At its warmest, the ground only thaws about 1m (3 ft); below this is permanently frozen ground, called permafrost

49 TUNDRA Temperature: -40 O C to 18 O C Precipitation: 150 to 250 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Almost no trees due to short growing season and permafrost; lichens, mosses, grasses, sedges, shrubs Location: Regions south of the ice caps of the Arctic and extending across North America, Europe, and Siberia (high mountain tops) Other: Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturia, meaning "treeless plain"; it is the coldest of the biomes Example: Yakutsk, Russia

50 Characteristics of Tundra 1.Extremely cold climate 2.Low biotic diversity 3.Simple vegetation structure 4.Limitation of drainage 5.Short season of growth and reproduction 6.Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material 7.Large population oscillations

51 TUNDRA Most typical plants are mosses, lichens, and other small plants that can survive the extreme cold Polar bears, reindeer, caribou, arctic foxes, arctic hares, all inhabit the northern tundra

52 TUNDRA While the fringes of Antarctica support various species of seal and penguin

53 Arctic Tundra Located in the northern hemisphere, encircling the north pole and extending south to the coniferous forests of the taiga

54 Alpine Tundra Located on mountains throughout the world at high altitude where trees cannot grow The growing season is approximately 180 days

55 Tundra Animals Caribou migrate in large herds to feed on the plants flowering and setting seed during the short summer Predatory wolves track the herds on their migration, while foxes clean up carrion ( ซากสัตว์ ) and the sickly

56 Tundra Animals Arctic foxes have the thickest pelts (skin) and tiny ears Foxes evolved a method of preventing heat escaping from their paws into the snow

57 Tundra Animals Caribou have similar heat- exchangers and a special type of fat in their lower legs Musk oxen insulating themselves with thick layers of fur and fat, they huddle together in groups for warmth and, when threatened by predators, will often form a protective circle with the young calves at the center

58 TAIGA (Coniferous Forest)

59 T A I G A Taiga (northern coniferous forest or boreal forest) The largest land biome, covering about 17% of the Earth's land area or about 1/3 of its total forested area Lengthy, snowy, cold winters and short, mild summers Cone-bearing trees and spongy bogs dominate the landscape Various types of large deer, particularly elk and wapiti, and wolves, hares, bears

60 TAIGA Temperature: -40 O C to 20 O C, average summer temperature is 10 O C Precipitation: 300 to 900 millimeters of rain per year Vegetation: Coniferous-evergreen trees (trees that produce cones and needles; some needles remain on the trees all year long) Location: Canada, Europe, Asia, and the United States Other: Coniferous forest regions have cold, long, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; well-defined seasons, at least four to six frost-free months Example: Beaverlodge, Alberta, Canada

61 ป่าสนในแถบเหนือ เป็นป่าที่อยู่ในแถบขั้วโลก ลงมาในบริเวณอลาสกา แคนาดา สแกนดิเนเวีย และไซบีเรีย ระหว่างเส้นรุ้ง องศาเหนือ การใช้ประโยชน์จากป่าสน ถ้าทำอย่างไม่ เหมาะสมจะทำให้ลดผลผลิต และเป็นการ ทำลายทิวทัศน์ อาจจะเกิดอันตรายจากไฟไหม้ ป่า หรืออาจใช้ประโยชน์เป็นที่พักผ่อนหย่อนใจ ของมนุษย์ได้น้อยลง รวมทั้งชีวิตสัตว์ป่าต่าง ๆ และคุณภาพลุ่มน้ำลำธารลดลง

62 Coniferous (Boreal) Forest The largest terrestial biome Occuring between 50 and 60 degrees N latitudes Seasons are divided into short, moist, and moderately warm summers and long, cold, and dry winters The length of the growing season in boreal forests is 130 days

63 Coniferous (Boreal) Forest มีพืชพวกสนเป็นส่วน ใหญ่ ต้นไม้เตี้ยที่เป็นพืชปก คลุม คือ พวกมอส หญ้า และไม้พุ่มในแถบหนาว บางแห่งมีต้นไม้ใหญ่ และสูงมาก เช่น เรดวูด ป่าไม้พวกนี้เป็นแหล่งน้ำ จืดของโลก เช่น – ทะเลสาบซุพีเรียในอเมริกาเหนือ – ทะเลสาบไบคาลในเอเซีย

64 Flora consist mostly of cold- tolerant evergreen conifers with needle-like leaves, such as pine, fir, and spruce.

65 Fauna include woodpeckers, hawks, moose, bear, weasel, lynx, fox, wolf, deer, hares, chipmunks, shrews, and bats.

66 Taiga Cone-bearing Tree Their conical shape allows snow to fall off easily The small surface area of their needle-shaped leaves reduces water loss A thick, waxy cuticle protects the leaf stomata from the drying winds and prevents water loss Dark-colored leaves throughout the year, the evergreen trees are ready to photosynthesize as soon as temperatures rise above 6° C (43° F) in spring

67 Taiga Animal Adaptations Thick coats of fur or feathers for insulation Large body size, relative to similar species, is another strategy that prevents heat loss, i.e. elk is the largest member of the deer family Several species have developed the ability to live beneath the snow-covered ground in winter

68 Taiga Animal Adaptations Others, such as the brown-bear and squirrel, over-winter by hibernation Some animals do not hibernate, but hoard or store food to enable them to survive the winter period

69 Taiga Animal Adaptations Migratory behaviour; caribou migrate south in winter, other birds and mammals only spend the summer months in the taiga


ดาวน์โหลด ppt วิชา 104 107 Man and Environment 4 (4- 0-8) ภาคการศึกษาที่ 1 ปีการศึกษา 2549 Environment of Human Population: The Biotic Environments: โดย อ. มงคล ผจงธนสฤษฏ์

งานนำเสนอที่คล้ายกัน


Ads by Google