งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "วิชา 104 107 Man and Environment 4 (4- 0-8) ภาคการศึกษาที่ 1 ปีการศึกษา 2549 Environment of Human Population: The Biotic Environments: โดย อ. มงคล ผจงธนสฤษฏ์"— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:
วิชา 104 107 Man and Environment 4 (4- 0-8) ภาคการศึกษาที่ 1 ปีการศึกษา 2549 Environment of Human Population: The Biotic Environments: โดย อ. มงคล ผจงธนสฤษฏ์ วันที่ 29 มิถุนายน 2549 เวลา 15.00-17.00 น. ณ อาคารเรียนรวม ห้อง B3103 Flora & Fauna - Biomes of the World -
F L O R A รุกขชาติในท้องถิ่น หรือในช่วง ระยะเวลาใดๆ (list of the plants of an area or period)
F A U N A บรรดาสัตว์ในท้องถิ่น ในช่วง เวลา หรือในสภาวะแวดล้อม พิเศษใดๆ (the animals characteristic of a region, period, or special environment)
B I O M E Large ecosystem characterized by similar plant/vegetation, animal, and climate –There are various terrestrial biomes –and two aquatic (freshwater and salt-water) biomes
Some of the Biomes on Earth (1) - Terrestrial - Desert –very dry, either hot or cold Tropical Rain Forest –warm and very wet Grassland –Windy, grass with few trees
Some of the Biomes on Earth (2) - Terrestrial - Deciduous Forest –cool and rainy, with deciduous trees Tundra –cool, treeless, and dry Coniferous Forest (Taiga) –cool and dry, with coniferous trees
Some of the Biomes on Earth (3) - Aquatic - Wetlands - many types, including swamps, marshes, bogs, fens, sloughs, etc. Marine –benthic biomes (bottom) –coral reef (warm shallow salt- water environments) –pelagic biomes (open seas near the surface) –estuarine biomes (where rivers meet oceans)
DESERT Deserts cover about 18-20% of the Earth's land area Insects, reptiles (especially lizards), birds and small mammals reside in the desert, many active only at night
DESERT Temperature: Average of 38 O C (day), -3.9 O C (night) Precipitation: About 250 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Cacti, small bushes, short grasses Location: Between 15 O and 35 O latitude (North and South of the equator); examples are Mojave, Sonoran, Chihuahua, and Great Basin (North America); Sahara (Africa); Negev (Middle East); and Gobi (Asia) Other: Perennials survive for several years by becoming dormant and flourishing when water is available. Annuals are referred to as ephemerals because some can complete an entire life cycle in weeks. Example: El-Oasr el-Akhdar, Egypt
Desert Plant Adaptations Some flowering desert plants are ephemeral; –They live for a few days. Their seeds lie dormant in the soil, sometimes for years, until a soaking rain enables them to germinate and quickly bloom Desert plants usually have small leaves. –This conserves water by reducing surface area from which transpiration can take place
Desert Plant Adaptations Other plants drop their leaves during the dry period Woody desert plants either: –have long root systems that reach deep water sources or –have spreading shallow roots that are able to take up surface moisture quickly from heavy dews and occasional rains
Desert Plant Adaptations Desert plants are succulents, storing water in leaves, stems, and roots Thorns, modified leaves, guard the water from animal invaders These plants may take in and store carbon dioxide only at night; during the day their stomata, or pores, are closed to prevent evaporation.
Desert Animal Adaptations Amphibian species mature rapidly, mate, and lay eggs Many birds and rodents reproduce only periods of winter rain that stimulate the growth of vegetation Some desert rodents are extremely efficient at conserving and recycling water, their urine is highly concentrated
Desert Animal Adaptations Most desert mammals and reptiles are nocturnal, remaining in cool underground burrows or in the shade by day Some desert reptiles can control their metabolic heat production by varying their rate of heartbeat and the rate of body metabolism
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
TROPICAL RAINFORESTS Located near the equator Cover less than 10% of the Earth's surface, but provide a habitat for 50 to 90% of the world's plant and animal species
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST Temperature: 20 O C to 25 O C, must remain warm and frost-free Precipitation: 2,000 to 10,000 millimeters of rain per year Vegetation: Vines, palm trees, orchids, ferns Location: Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn Other: There are two types of rainforests, tropical and temperate. Tropical rainforests are found closer to the equator and temperate rainforests are found farther north near coastal areas. The majority of common houseplants come from the rainforest. Example: Campa Pita, Belize
Characteristics Greatest diversity of species Near the equator, within the area bounded by latitudes 23.5 degrees N and 23.5 degrees S Distinct seasonality: winter is absent, and only two seasons are present (rainy and dry) Daylight is 12 hours and varies little.
Characterized by rapid plant growth, thick forest canopy, and a huge diversity of animal species A multitude of insects and other invertebrates thrive along with birds, monkey, snakes and lizard
Flora is highly diverse: one square kilometer may contain as many as 100 different tree species. –Trees are 25-35 m tall, with buttressed trunks and shallow roots, mostly evergreen, with large dark green leaves. –Plants such as orchids, bromeliads, vines, ferns, mosses, and palms are present in tropical forests.
Fauna include numerous birds, bats, small mammals, and insects.
EMERGENTS: Giant trees - houses many birds and insects. CANOPY: The upper parts - full of life in a tropical rainforest and includes: insects, birds, reptiles, mammals, and more. UNDERSTORY: A dark, cool environment under the leaves but over the ground. FOREST FLOOR: Teeming with animal life, especially insects. The largest animals in the rainforest generally live here.
Rain Forest Plants Large leaves are commonly found especially where light is low and transpiration reduced due to the high humidity Many trees have thin, smooth bark because there is little need to conserve water, while others are armed with spikes or thorns for protection.
Rain Forest Plants Some trees have large fleshy fruits to attract the birds and animals that disperse the seeds Epiphytes ( กาฝาก ) are plants that root on the trees Climbers are woody vines ( เถาวัลย์ ) that grow high into the canopy
Rain Forest Animals Many endemic species are found in rainforests Sometimes living on only one type of food plant Being active at certain times of the day Adaptations for living in the high canopy include flying, gliding, and prehensile tails
Rain Forest Animals Ground-dwelling forest mammals include large cats, such as tigers and jaguars, pigs, and many species of rodent Bird and reptile species occur in each of the forest layers -bright colouring and distinctive calls patterning Many species have effective camouflage behaviours
The deforestation technique of slash and burn causes environmental damage: –carbon dioxide adds to the greenhouse effect –destroys animal habitats –accelerates erosion –adding to the sediment loads of rivers –making seasonal flooding much more severe
GRASSLAND Large parts of grasslands are now planted with wheat, barley, and maize Most famous animal are the large grazers and browsers of the savannah, –lion, cheetah, elephant, rhinoceros, giraffe, buffalo, zebra and numerous species of antelopes
GRASSLAND Temperature: Dependent on latitude, yearly range can be between -20 O C to 30 O C Precipitation: About 500 to 900 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Grasses (prairie clover, salvia, oats, wheat, barley, coneflowers) Location: The prairies of the Great Plains of North America, the pampas of South America, the veldt of South Africa, the steppes of Central Eurasia, and surrounding the deserts in Australia Other: Found on every continent except Antarctica Example: Ingeniera White, Argentina
There are 2 main divisions of grasslands: 1.tropical grassland, called savanna 2.temperate grassland
Savanna Grassland with scattered individual trees Cover almost half the surface of Africa (about five million square miles, generally central Africa) and large areas of Australia, South America, and India
Prairies are grasslands with tall grasses Steppes are grasslands with short grasses
DECIDUOUS FOREST deciduous trees (shed their leaves annually) winters are long, but not as harsh as Taiga animal life is varied and includes ground squirrels, foxes, bears, mice, snakes, rabbits, lizards, and deers
DECIDUOUS FOREST Temperature: -30 O C to 30 O C, yearly average is 10 O C, hot summers, cold winters Precipitation: 750 to 1,500 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses Location: Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan Other: Temperate deciduous forests are most notable because they go through four seasons. Leaves change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back in the spring; this adaptation allows plants to survive cold winters. Example: Staunton, Virginia, United States
Fall ColorsFall Colors In the Fall, the number of hours of daylight decreases This causes deciduous trees to stop producing chlorophyll and eventually lose their leaves During this time, these leaves turn brilliant colors, ranging from red to orange to yellow to brown
TUNDRA Long, severe winters and cool, brief summers At its warmest, the ground only thaws about 1m (3 ft); below this is permanently frozen ground, called permafrost
TUNDRA Temperature: -40 O C to 18 O C Precipitation: 150 to 250 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Almost no trees due to short growing season and permafrost; lichens, mosses, grasses, sedges, shrubs Location: Regions south of the ice caps of the Arctic and extending across North America, Europe, and Siberia (high mountain tops) Other: Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturia, meaning "treeless plain"; it is the coldest of the biomes Example: Yakutsk, Russia
Characteristics of Tundra 1.Extremely cold climate 2.Low biotic diversity 3.Simple vegetation structure 4.Limitation of drainage 5.Short season of growth and reproduction 6.Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material 7.Large population oscillations
TUNDRA Most typical plants are mosses, lichens, and other small plants that can survive the extreme cold Polar bears, reindeer, caribou, arctic foxes, arctic hares, all inhabit the northern tundra
TUNDRA While the fringes of Antarctica support various species of seal and penguin
Arctic Tundra Located in the northern hemisphere, encircling the north pole and extending south to the coniferous forests of the taiga
Alpine Tundra Located on mountains throughout the world at high altitude where trees cannot grow The growing season is approximately 180 days
Tundra Animals Caribou migrate in large herds to feed on the plants flowering and setting seed during the short summer Predatory wolves track the herds on their migration, while foxes clean up carrion ( ซากสัตว์ ) and the sickly
Tundra Animals Arctic foxes have the thickest pelts (skin) and tiny ears Foxes evolved a method of preventing heat escaping from their paws into the snow
Tundra Animals Caribou have similar heat- exchangers and a special type of fat in their lower legs Musk oxen insulating themselves with thick layers of fur and fat, they huddle together in groups for warmth and, when threatened by predators, will often form a protective circle with the young calves at the center
TAIGA (Coniferous Forest)
T A I G A Taiga (northern coniferous forest or boreal forest) The largest land biome, covering about 17% of the Earth's land area or about 1/3 of its total forested area Lengthy, snowy, cold winters and short, mild summers Cone-bearing trees and spongy bogs dominate the landscape Various types of large deer, particularly elk and wapiti, and wolves, hares, bears
TAIGA Temperature: -40 O C to 20 O C, average summer temperature is 10 O C Precipitation: 300 to 900 millimeters of rain per year Vegetation: Coniferous-evergreen trees (trees that produce cones and needles; some needles remain on the trees all year long) Location: Canada, Europe, Asia, and the United States Other: Coniferous forest regions have cold, long, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; well-defined seasons, at least four to six frost-free months Example: Beaverlodge, Alberta, Canada
Coniferous (Boreal) Forest The largest terrestial biome Occuring between 50 and 60 degrees N latitudes Seasons are divided into short, moist, and moderately warm summers and long, cold, and dry winters The length of the growing season in boreal forests is 130 days
Flora consist mostly of cold- tolerant evergreen conifers with needle-like leaves, such as pine, fir, and spruce.
Fauna include woodpeckers, hawks, moose, bear, weasel, lynx, fox, wolf, deer, hares, chipmunks, shrews, and bats.
Taiga Cone-bearing Tree Their conical shape allows snow to fall off easily The small surface area of their needle-shaped leaves reduces water loss A thick, waxy cuticle protects the leaf stomata from the drying winds and prevents water loss Dark-colored leaves throughout the year, the evergreen trees are ready to photosynthesize as soon as temperatures rise above 6° C (43° F) in spring
Taiga Animal Adaptations Thick coats of fur or feathers for insulation Large body size, relative to similar species, is another strategy that prevents heat loss, i.e. elk is the largest member of the deer family Several species have developed the ability to live beneath the snow-covered ground in winter
Taiga Animal Adaptations Others, such as the brown-bear and squirrel, over-winter by hibernation Some animals do not hibernate, but hoard or store food to enable them to survive the winter period
Taiga Animal Adaptations Migratory behaviour; caribou migrate south in winter, other birds and mammals only spend the summer months in the taiga