งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "Flora & Fauna - Biomes of the World -"— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:
1Flora & Fauna - Biomes of the World - วิชา Man and Environment 4 (4-0-8) ภาคการศึกษาที่ 1 ปีการศึกษา Environment of Human Population: The Biotic Environments:โดย อ.มงคล ผจงธนสฤษฏ์ วันที่ 29 มิถุนายน 2549 เวลา น. ณ อาคารเรียนรวม ห้อง B3103Flora & Fauna - Biomes of the World -
7Some of the Biomes on Earth (1) - Terrestrial - Desertvery dry, either hot or coldTropical Rain Forestwarm and very wetGrasslandWindy, grass with few trees
8Some of the Biomes on Earth (2) - Terrestrial - Deciduous Forestcool and rainy, with deciduous treesTundracool, treeless, and dryConiferous Forest (Taiga)cool and dry, with coniferous trees
9Some of the Biomes on Earth (3) - Aquatic - Wetlands - many types, including swamps, marshes, bogs, fens, sloughs, etc.Marinebenthic biomes (bottom)coral reef (warm shallow salt-water environments)pelagic biomes (open seas near the surface)estuarine biomes (where rivers meet oceans)
13DESERT Temperature: Average of 38 OC (day), -3.9 OC (night) Precipitation: About 250 mm of rain per yearVegetation: Cacti, small bushes, short grassesLocation: Between 15 O and 35 O latitude (North and South of the equator); examples are Mojave, Sonoran, Chihuahua, and Great Basin (North America); Sahara (Africa); Negev (Middle East); and Gobi (Asia)Other: Perennials survive for several years by becoming dormant and flourishing when water is available. Annuals are referred to as ephemerals because some can complete an entire life cycle in weeks.Example: El-Oasr el-Akhdar, Egypt
16Desert Plant Adaptations Some flowering desert plants are ephemeral;They live for a few days. Their seeds lie dormant in the soil, sometimes for years, until a soaking rain enables them to germinate and quickly bloomDesert plants usually have small leaves.This conserves water by reducing surface area from which transpiration can take place
17Desert Plant Adaptations Other plants drop their leaves during the dry periodWoody desert plants either:have long root systems that reach deep water sources orhave spreading shallow roots that are able to take up surface moisture quickly from heavy dews and occasional rains
18Desert Plant Adaptations Desert plants are succulents, storing water in leaves, stems, and rootsThorns, modified leaves, guard the water from animal invadersThese plants may take in and store carbon dioxide only at night; during the day their stomata, or pores, are closed to prevent evaporation.
20Desert Animal Adaptations Amphibian species mature rapidly, mate, and lay eggsMany birds and rodents reproduce only periods of winter rain that stimulate the growth of vegetationSome desert rodents are extremely efficient at conserving and recycling water, their urine is highly concentrated
21Desert Animal Adaptations Most desert mammals and reptiles are nocturnal, remaining in cool underground burrows or in the shade by daySome desert reptiles can control their metabolic heat production by varying their rate of heartbeat and the rate of body metabolism
23TROPICAL RAINFORESTS Located near the equator Cover less than 10% of the Earth's surface, but provide a habitat for 50 to 90% of the world's plant and animal species
24TROPICAL RAIN FOREST Temperature: 20 OC to 25 OC, must remain warm and frost-freePrecipitation: 2,000 to 10,000 millimeters of rain per yearVegetation: Vines, palm trees, orchids, fernsLocation: Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of CapricornOther: There are two types of rainforests, tropical and temperate. Tropical rainforests are found closer to the equator and temperate rainforests are found farther north near coastal areas. The majority of common houseplants come from the rainforest.Example: Campa Pita, Belize
25Characteristics Greatest diversity of species Near the equator, within the area bounded by latitudes 23.5 degrees N and 23.5 degrees SDistinct seasonality: winter is absent, and only two seasons are present (rainy and dry)Daylight is 12 hours and varies little.
26Characterized by rapid plant growth, thick forest canopy, and a huge diversity of animal species A multitude of insects and other invertebrates thrive along with birds, monkey, snakes and lizard
27Flora is highly diverse: one square kilometer may contain as many as 100 different tree species. Trees are m tall, with buttressed trunks and shallow roots, mostly evergreen, with large dark green leaves.Plants such as orchids, bromeliads, vines, ferns, mosses, and palms are present in tropical forests.
28Fauna include numerous birds, bats, small mammals, and insects.
29EMERGENTS: Giant trees - houses many birds and insects. CANOPY: The upper parts - full of life in a tropical rainforest and includes: insects, birds, reptiles, mammals, and more.UNDERSTORY: A dark, cool environment under the leaves but over the ground.FOREST FLOOR: Teeming with animal life, especially insects. The largest animals in the rainforest generally live here.
30Rain Forest PlantsLarge leaves are commonly found especially where light is low and transpiration reduced due to the high humidityMany trees have thin, smooth bark because there is little need to conserve water, while others are armed with spikes or thorns for protection.
31Rain Forest PlantsSome trees have large fleshy fruits to attract the birds and animals that disperse the seedsEpiphytes (กาฝาก) are plants that root on the treesClimbers are woody vines (เถาวัลย์) that grow high into the canopy
32Rain Forest Animals Many endemic species are found in rainforests Sometimes living on only one type of food plantBeing active at certain times of the dayAdaptations for living in the high canopy include flying, gliding, and prehensile tails
33Rain Forest AnimalsGround-dwelling forest mammals include large cats, such as tigers and jaguars, pigs, and many species of rodentBird and reptile species occur in each of the forest layers -bright colouring and distinctive calls patterningMany species have effective camouflage behaviours
34The deforestation technique of slash and burn causes environmental damage: carbon dioxide adds to the greenhouse effectdestroys animal habitatsaccelerates erosionadding to the sediment loads of riversmaking seasonal flooding much more severe
36GRASSLANDLarge parts of grasslands are now planted with wheat, barley, and maizeMost famous animal are the large grazers and browsers of the savannah,lion, cheetah, elephant, rhinoceros, giraffe, buffalo, zebra and numerous species of antelopes
37GRASSLAND Temperature: Dependent on latitude, yearly range can be between -20 OC to 30 OCPrecipitation: About 500 to 900 mm of rain per yearVegetation: Grasses (prairie clover, salvia, oats, wheat, barley, coneflowers)Location: The prairies of the Great Plains of North America, the pampas of South America, the veldt of South Africa, the steppes of Central Eurasia, and surrounding the deserts in AustraliaOther: Found on every continent except AntarcticaExample: Ingeniera White, Argentina
39There are 2 main divisions of grasslands: tropical grassland, called savannatemperate grassland
40Savanna Grassland with scattered individual trees Cover almost half the surface of Africa (about five million square miles, generally central Africa) and large areas of Australia, South America, and India
41Prairies are grasslands with tall grasses Steppes are grasslands with short grasses
43DECIDUOUS FOREST deciduous trees (shed their leaves annually) winters are long, but not as harsh as Taigaanimal life is varied and includes ground squirrels, foxes, bears, mice, snakes, rabbits, lizards, and deers
44DECIDUOUS FOREST Temperature: -30 OC to 30 OC, yearly average is 10 OC, hot summers, cold wintersPrecipitation: 750 to 1,500 mm of rain per yearVegetation: Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mossesLocation: Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and JapanOther: Temperate deciduous forests are most notable because they go through four seasons. Leaves change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back in the spring; this adaptation allows plants to survive cold winters.Example: Staunton, Virginia, United States
45Fall Colors In the Fall, the number of hours of daylight decreases This causes deciduous trees to stop producing chlorophyll and eventually lose their leavesDuring this time, these leaves turn brilliant colors, ranging from red to orange to yellow to brown
47TUNDRA Long, severe winters and cool, brief summers At its warmest, the ground only thaws about 1m (3 ft); below this is permanently frozen ground, called permafrost
48TUNDRA Temperature: -40 OC to 18 OC Precipitation: 150 to 250 mm of rain per yearVegetation: Almost no trees due to short growing season and permafrost; lichens, mosses, grasses, sedges, shrubsLocation: Regions south of the ice caps of the Arctic and extending across North America, Europe, and Siberia (high mountain tops)Other: Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturia, meaning "treeless plain"; it is the coldest of the biomesExample: Yakutsk, Russia
49Characteristics of Tundra Extremely cold climateLow biotic diversitySimple vegetation structureLimitation of drainageShort season of growth and reproductionEnergy and nutrients in the form of dead organic materialLarge population oscillations
50TUNDRAMost typical plants are mosses, lichens, and other small plants that can survive the extreme coldPolar bears, reindeer, caribou, arctic foxes, arctic hares, all inhabit the northern tundra
51TUNDRAWhile the fringes of Antarctica support various species of seal and penguin
52Arctic TundraLocated in the northern hemisphere, encircling the north pole and extending south to the coniferous forests of the taiga
53Alpine TundraLocated on mountains throughout the world at high altitude where trees cannot growThe growing season is approximately 180 days
54Tundra AnimalsCaribou migrate in large herds to feed on the plants flowering and setting seed during the short summerPredatory wolves track the herds on their migration, while foxes clean up carrion (ซากสัตว์) and the sickly
55Tundra AnimalsArctic foxes have the thickest pelts (skin) and tiny earsFoxes evolved a method of preventing heat escaping from their paws into the snow
56Tundra AnimalsCaribou have similar heat-exchangers and a special type of fat in their lower legsMusk oxen insulating themselves with thick layers of fur and fat, they huddle together in groups for warmth and, when threatened by predators, will often form a protective circle with the young calves at the center
58T A I G A Taiga (northern coniferous forest or boreal forest) The largest land biome, covering about 17% of the Earth's land area or about 1/3 of its total forested areaLengthy, snowy, cold winters and short, mild summersCone-bearing trees and spongy bogs dominate the landscapeVarious types of large deer, particularly elk and wapiti, and wolves, hares, bears
59TAIGATemperature: -40 OC to 20 OC, average summer temperature is 10 OCPrecipitation: 300 to 900 millimeters of rain per yearVegetation: Coniferous-evergreen trees (trees that produce cones and needles; some needles remain on the trees all year long)Location: Canada, Europe, Asia, and the United StatesOther: Coniferous forest regions have cold, long, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; well-defined seasons, at least four to six frost-free monthsExample: Beaverlodge, Alberta, Canada
61Coniferous (Boreal) Forest The largest terrestial biomeOccuring between 50 and 60 degrees N latitudesSeasons are divided into short, moist, and moderately warm summers and long, cold, and dry wintersThe length of the growing season in boreal forests is 130 days
63Flora consist mostly of cold-tolerant evergreen conifers with needle-like leaves, such as pine, fir, and spruce.
64Fauna include woodpeckers, hawks, moose, bear, weasel, lynx, fox, wolf, deer, hares, chipmunks, shrews, and bats.
65Taiga Cone-bearing Tree Their conical shape allows snow to fall off easilyThe small surface area of their needle-shaped leaves reduces water lossA thick, waxy cuticle protects the leaf stomata from the drying winds and prevents water lossDark-colored leaves throughout the year, the evergreen trees are ready to photosynthesize as soon as temperatures rise above 6° C (43° F) in spring
66Taiga Animal Adaptations Thick coats of fur or feathers for insulationLarge body size, relative to similar species, is another strategy that prevents heat loss, i.e. elk is the largest member of the deer familySeveral species have developed the ability to live beneath the snow-covered ground in winter
67Taiga Animal Adaptations Others, such as the brown-bear and squirrel, over-winter by hibernationSome animals do not hibernate, but hoard or store food to enable them to survive the winter period
68Taiga Animal Adaptations Migratory behaviour; caribou migrate south in winter, other birds and mammals only spend the summer months in the taiga