1 Fax. 66-843-343182 , E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org - Asst. Prof . LAA ARCHWICHAIผศ. หล้า อาจวิชัย- B.Sc. (Geology) , KKU.- M.Sc. (Engineering Geology)Imperial College London ,U. of London, U.K.- D.I.C. (Engineering Geology),Royal School of Mines,Imperial College London, U.K.OFFICE : Department of Geotechnology ,Faculty of Technology, KhonKaen University.Tel ext ,Mobile :Fax ,URL:Laa Archwichai 2006
2 TECHNICAL AREAS OF SPECIALSATION : - วิศวกรรมธรณี/ธรณีเทคนิค (Engineering Geology/ Geotechnical Engineering) เน้นการสำรวจ แหล่งก่อสร้าง และการปรับปรุงดินทางวิศวกรรม( Site Investigations and Ground Improvement) - แบบจำลองการไหลน้ำบาดาลและการเคลื่อนย้ายมวล (Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Modeling) - การประเมินผลกระทบสิ่งแวดล้อม (Environmental Impact Assessment : Geology , Geotechnical Engineering Aspects) RESEARCH INTERESTS: Engineering Properties of Geological Materials. - Geotechnical Site Investigations. - Ground Improvement - Environmental Impact Assessment and Studies. . - Slope Engineering and Landslides Hazards/Geohazards - Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Modeling. - Soil Salinity PROFESSIONAL RECORDS AND EXPERIENCE: - See Laa URL:
3 THE RETURN OF TSUNAMI Asst. Prof. Laa Archwichai/ผศ.หล้า อาจวิชัย Dept. of Geotechnology, Khon Kaen UniversityTHE RETURN OF TSUNAMITsunami Seminar 2006, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, 13 September, 2006
4 Tsunami Seminar 2006 Scope: A) General Information on Tsunami Asst. Prof. Laa Archwichai/ผศ.หล้า อาจวิชัย Dept. of Geotechnology,Khon Kaen University.Tsunami Seminar 2006Scope:A) General Information on TsunamiB) Environmental Geological Impactsof TsunamiC) Tsunami Prevention andMitigationD) Tsunami Alert and WarningSystemTsunami Seminar 2006: Postgrad Seminar, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University. 13 September, 2006.
5 A) General Information on Tsunami 1. Definition:- TSUNAMI :- Japanese word Harbor wave ดูข้อมูลเรื่อง WAVES2. Tsunami Occurrence/Causes:. Earthquakes Plate Tectonic. Volcanic Eruptions. Landslides/Submarine Landslides. Cosmic/Meteorite Impacts/Collisions
10 7. Continental Drift 150 Ma - SOUTHERN CONTINENTS BROKE UP Indian plate moved north closing ocean basin40 ma collision with EurasiaHimalayas rise, complex plate boundary zone develops7. Continental Drift
11 Complex Plate Boundary Zone in Southeast Asia Northward motion of India deforms all of the regionEastward motion in China & SE AsiaMany small plates (microplates) and blocks(Molnar & Tapponnier, 1977)
12 Collision Between Indian and Eurasian Plates: Space Geodetic Motions. Mountain building by continental collision produced boundary zone extending 1000’s of km northward from the nominal plate boundary at the Himalayan front.Total plate convergence taken up several ways. About half occursacross locked Himalayan frontal faults such as the Main Central ThrustCrustal "escape" or"extrusion" - large fragments of continental crust are displaced eastward by the collision along major strike-slipfaults.Larson et al., 1999
13 EARTHQUAKE (COSEISMIC): INTERSEISMIC:India subducts beneath Burma microplate at about 50 mm/yr (precise rate hard to infer given complex geomtery)Fault interface is lockedEARTHQUAKE (COSEISMIC):Fault interface slips, overriding plate rebounds, releasing accumulated motionStein & Wysession, 2003
18 9. Causes of Earthquakes: - Earthquakes occur when strain ENERGY in rocks is suddenly released. Causes intense ground shaking.
19 Earthquake can be generated by : - Tectonic activities / plates movement- Volcanic eruptions- Surface Collapse(Mine burst, massive landslides)- Explosion(Detonation, Nuclear explosion)- Reservoir loading(Reservoir-induced earthquakes)- Hydraulic injection/petroleum and water injectionSeismology:- The study of earthquakes.- Earthquakes sending out vibrations called “seismic waves.
20 - The study of the behavior of the seismic waves is called SEISMOLOGY. - SEISMOMETER : - an instrument used to record seismic vibrations and the resulting GRAPH that shows the vibrations is called a SEISMOGRAM.- SEISMICITY: frequency and distribution of earthquakes- SEISMOMETER : - an instrument used to record seismic vibrations and the resulting GRAPHthat shows the vibrations is called a SEISMOGRAM.Seismometer
21 - The point on the surface on the earth directly above the focus. Earthquake Focus- Source of earthquake is called earthquake focus -->>>> location where seismic waves are generated.Earthquake Epicenter- The point on the surface on the earth directly above the focus.
22 Earthquake Magnitude Scale: Earthquake EffectsEstimated Number Each Year2.5 or lessMinor: Usually not felt, but can be recorded by seismograph.900,0002.5 to 5.4Light: Often felt, but only causes minor damage.30,0005.5 to 6.0Moderate: Slight damage to buildings and other structures.5006.1 to 6.9Strong: May cause a lot of damage in very populated areas.1007.0 to 7.9Major: Major earthquake. Serious damage.208.0 or greaterGreat: Great earthquake. Can totally destroy communities near the epicenter.One every 5 to 10 years
23 Earthquake Magnitude Classes Great8 or moreMajorStrongModerateLightMinor3 -3.9Richter Magnitude:- Seismologists use a Magnitude scale to express the seismic energy released by each earthquake. Here are the typical effects of earthquakes in various magnitude ranges:
24 Earthquake Severity Richter Magnitudes Earthquake Effects Less than 3.5. Generally not felt, but recorded.. Often felt, but rarely causes damage.Under 6.0. At most slight damage to well designedbuildings. Can cause major damage to poorlyconstructed buildings over small regions.. Can be destructive in areas up to about 100Kilometers across where people live.. Major earthquake. Can cause serious damage over larger areas.8 or greater. Great earthquake. Can cause seriousdamage in areas Several hundred kilometersacross.
30 10. Earthquakes Cause Tsunami Asst. Prof. Laa Archwichai/ผศ.หล้า อาจวิชัย Dept. of Geotechnology,Khon Kaen University.Tsunami 101:Tsunamis are a series of traveling ocean waves of extremely long length generated primarily by earthquakes occurring below or near the ocean floor. Underwater volcanic eruptions and landslides can also generate tsunamis.A tsunami is a series of ocean waves generated by any rapid large-scale disturbance of the sea water. Most tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but they may also be caused by volcanic eruptions, landslides, undersea slumps or meteor impacts.The waves radiate outward in all directions from the disturbance and can propagate across entire ocean basins. For example, in 1960 an earthquake in Chile caused a tsunami that swept across the Pacific to Japan. Tsunami waves are distinguished from ordinary ocean waves by their great length between peaks, often exceeding 100 miles in the deep ocean, and by the long amount of time between these peaks, ranging from five minutes to an hour. The speed at which tsunamis travel depends on the ocean depth. A tsunami can exceed 500 mph in the deep ocean but slows to 20 or 30 mph in the shallow water near land. In less than 24 hours, a tsunami can cross the entire Pacific Ocean.In the deep ocean, a tsunami is barely noticeable and will only cause a small and slow rising and falling of the sea surface as it passes. Only as it approaches land does a tsunami become a hazard. As the tsunami approaches land and shallow water, the waves slow down and become compressed, causing them to grow in height. In the best of cases, the tsunami comes onshore like a quickly rising tide and causes a gentle flooding of low-lying coastal areas.In the worst of cases, a bore will form. A bore is a wall of turbulent water that can be several meters high and can rush onshore with great destructive power. Behind the bore is a deep and fast-moving flood that can pick up and sweep away almost anything in its path, such as what happened in Papua New Guinea in 1998 when more than 2,000 people were killed and villages destroyed. Minutes later, the water will drain away as the trough of the tsunami wave arrives, sometimes exposing great patches of the sea floor. But then the water will rush in again as before, causing additional damage.This destructive cycle may repeat many times before the hazard finally passes. Persons caught in the path of a tsunami have little chance to survive. They can be easily crushed by debris or they may simply drown. Children and the elderly are particularly at risk, as they have less mobility, strength and endurance.Tsunamis typically cause the most severe damage and casualties very near their source. There the waves are highest because they have not yet lost much energy to friction or spreading. In addition, the nearby coastal population, often disoriented from the violent earthquake shaking, has little time to react before the tsunami arrives. The largest tsunamis, however, can cause destruction and casualties over a wide area, sometimes as wide as the entire Pacific Basin. These types of Pacific-wide tsunamis may happen only a few times each century.In the deep ocean, the tsunami waves propagate across the deep ocean with a speed exceeding approx. 500 miles per hour and wave height of only about 1 foot or less. They may not be felt by ships at sea.As they reach the shallow waters of the coast, the waves slow down and the water can pile up rapidly into a wall of destruction 30 ft or more in height. Sometimes, coastal waters are drawn out into the ocean just before the tsunami strikes. When this occurs. More shoreline may be exposed than even at the lowest tide. This major withdrawal of the sea should be taken as a warning of the tsunami waves that will follow.Tsunami wave energy extends from the surface to the bottom in even the deepest waters. As the tsunami attacks the coastline, the wave energy is compressed into a much shorter distance and a much shallower depth, creating destructive, life-threatening waves.10. Earthquakes Cause TsunamiTsunami Seminar 2006: Postgrad Seminar, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University. 13 September, 2006.
57 3. The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Plan, Program, and Projects - Plan for an Improved Tsunami Detection andWarning System Fact SheetEarly Warning SystemsEmergency ResponseCommunication ChannelsCommunity Response- Capacity Building and Training/Education- Tsunami Ready Community (Tsunami Hazard Readiness)4. Hazard Assessment- Produce Tsunami Inundation Maps- Center for Tsunami Research5. Warning Guidance- Deploy Tsunami Detection Buoys- Improve Seismic Networks