Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of the evidence Lanou AJ et al. Pediatrics 2005 Mar; 115:792-4. Aim: review literature effects of dairy products and total dietary calcium on bone integrity in children and young adults (1-25 yrs) 58 studies: 22 cross-sectional, 13 retrospective,10 longitudinal and 13 RCT 11: not control for wt, pubertal status, exercise, 10 RCT + calcium supplement: 9/10 positive results 37 dairy products without calcium supplement 27: no relationship between dairy and bone health 9 : effects on bone health are “small” 1 : no report Conclusion: In clinical, longitudinal, retrospective, and cross-sectional studies, neither increased consumption of dairy products, specifically, nor total dietary calcium consumption has shown even a modestly consistent benefit for child or young adult bone health.
A Meta-analysis of milk intake and fracture risk Osteoporosis International, 2005 Jul;16(7):799-804 39,563 men and women 6 prospective studies (EVOS/EPOS, CaMos, DOES, Rotterdam, Sheffield, Gothernberg)
Cohort N Mean age (years) Age range (years) % Female Low calcium intake (%) Any fracture Osteoporotic fracture Hip# EVOS/EPOS13,44563.841–915260720 45 CaMos940162.125–103693758631642 DOES206570.457–956140516405104 Rotterdam540867.755–94593636473130 Sheffield217380.074–961001629224363 Gothenburg II707158.921–891001444131229 Total39,56364.321–103693531912469413 A low intake of calcium (less than 1 glass of milk daily) was not associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture, osteoporotic fracture or hip fracture.
Dietary Cholesterol and Serum Cholesterol Relationship STUDY PLASMA CHOLESTEROL [mg/dl per 100 mg/day] Ginsberg et al. 1994 1.5 Schnohr et al. 1994 2.4 McComb et al. 19942.3; 0.7 Vuoristo & Miettinen 19943.4 Kern 19940.7; 0.0 Lichtenstein et al. 19943.9; 3.8 Jones et al. 19944.1 Ginsberg et al. 19952.8 Ferrier et al. 19951.9 Knopp et al. 19961.6, 3.2 AVERAGE2.3 1960-96 (n=142)2.5 Bosner MS, Lange LG, Stenson WF, Ostlund RE Jr. Lipid Res 1999, 40: 302-8 Cholesterol Absorption Efficiency
Dietary cholesterol Independent effect on TC, increased risk of CVD Men: + TC 1.47 mg/dl every 100mg chol added,// +LDL Arterioscler Thromb 14(4): 576-86. Women: + TC 2.81, +LDL 2.08 mg/dl every 100mg chol added, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15(2): 169-78. Egg consumption 1 egg/d not increased risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy –>1 egg/d increased risk in diabetic men(2.02), women (1.49)
Egg consumption, serum cholesterol, and cause-specific and allcause mortality: the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged, 1980 (NIPPON DATA80) Egg consumption >2/d1/d1/2/d1-2/wkSeldomP-value Women Total cholesterol5.114.984.894.834.84<0.0001 All cause death14.887.5 14.5<0.0001 IHD death188.8.131.52.520.008 Men Total cholesterol4.764.78 4.764.790.98 All cause death11.912.910.212.913.30.16 IHD death00.50.71.1 0.23
Women Dose response of cholesterol and egg consumed Age adjusted RR of consume egg> 1-2/wk compare with 1/d –tendencies for lower mortality due to stroke, IHD, and cancer Egg consumption, serum cholesterol, and cause-specific and allcause mortality: the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged, 1980 (NIPPON DATA80) Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:58–63.
Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessd by Stable Isotope N, recover over 24 hr Ingested N. EndogenousexogenousTrue ileal digestibility % Cooke d 4000400.2 + 31.5360.6 + 30.690.9 + 0.8 Raw 4000199.3 + 67.21949 + 390.351.3 + 9.8 Evenepoel P, et al. J Nutr 1998; 128: 1716-22