Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of the evidence Lanou AJ et al. Pediatrics 2005 Mar; 115: Aim: review literature effects of dairy products and total dietary calcium on bone integrity in children and young adults (1-25 yrs) 58 studies: 22 cross-sectional, 13 retrospective,10 longitudinal and 13 RCT 11: not control for wt, pubertal status, exercise, 10 RCT + calcium supplement: 9/10 positive results 37 dairy products without calcium supplement 27: no relationship between dairy and bone health 9 : effects on bone health are “small” 1 : no report Conclusion: In clinical, longitudinal, retrospective, and cross-sectional studies, neither increased consumption of dairy products, specifically, nor total dietary calcium consumption has shown even a modestly consistent benefit for child or young adult bone health.
A Meta-analysis of milk intake and fracture risk Osteoporosis International, 2005 Jul;16(7): ,563 men and women 6 prospective studies (EVOS/EPOS, CaMos, DOES, Rotterdam, Sheffield, Gothernberg)
Cohort N Mean age (years) Age range (years) % Female Low calcium intake (%) Any fracture Osteoporotic fracture Hip# EVOS/EPOS13, – CaMos – DOES – Rotterdam – Sheffield – Gothenburg II – Total39, – A low intake of calcium (less than 1 glass of milk daily) was not associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture, osteoporotic fracture or hip fracture.
Dietary Cholesterol and Serum Cholesterol Relationship STUDY PLASMA CHOLESTEROL [mg/dl per 100 mg/day] Ginsberg et al Schnohr et al McComb et al ; 0.7 Vuoristo & Miettinen Kern ; 0.0 Lichtenstein et al ; 3.8 Jones et al Ginsberg et al Ferrier et al Knopp et al , 3.2 AVERAGE (n=142)2.5 Bosner MS, Lange LG, Stenson WF, Ostlund RE Jr. Lipid Res 1999, 40: Cholesterol Absorption Efficiency
Dietary cholesterol Independent effect on TC, increased risk of CVD Men: + TC 1.47 mg/dl every 100mg chol added,// +LDL Arterioscler Thromb 14(4): Women: + TC 2.81, +LDL 2.08 mg/dl every 100mg chol added, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15(2): Egg consumption 1 egg/d not increased risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy –>1 egg/d increased risk in diabetic men(2.02), women (1.49)
Egg Consumption and CVD: NHS
Egg consumption, serum cholesterol, and cause-specific and allcause mortality: the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged, 1980 (NIPPON DATA80) Egg consumption >2/d1/d1/2/d1-2/wkSeldomP-value Women Total cholesterol < All cause death < IHD death Men Total cholesterol All cause death IHD death
Women Dose response of cholesterol and egg consumed Age adjusted RR of consume egg> 1-2/wk compare with 1/d –tendencies for lower mortality due to stroke, IHD, and cancer Egg consumption, serum cholesterol, and cause-specific and allcause mortality: the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged, 1980 (NIPPON DATA80) Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:58–63.
Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessd by Stable Isotope N, recover over 24 hr Ingested N. EndogenousexogenousTrue ileal digestibility % Cooke d Raw Evenepoel P, et al. J Nutr 1998; 128: