งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "The representation of “Thai culture” in Thai social science textbooks (the learning area of social studies, the strand of civics, culture and living) Kunthida."— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:
The representation of “Thai culture” in Thai social science textbooks (the learning area of social studies, the strand of civics, culture and living) Kunthida Rungruengkiat KMUTT The 11th International Conference on Thai Studies 26 th July 2011 26/7/20111Kunthida R.
Introduction In Thai, culture is วัฒนธรรม (wat-tha-na- tham) which is a compound word connoting a positive meaning. The issue of the construction of national identity in Thailand Previous research was conducted more at the policy level or politically related issues. Previous research and theses were mainly based on content analysis method. 26/7/20112Kunthida R.
Textbooks Aristotle’s statement in the Politics suggests that “the political community is prior to the individual citizen” (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1998), and this is the duty of politicians or authorities to frame the education for citizens. Coffin (2003) textbooks are part of educational institution providing readers with specific information. Thus, authors of textbooks are implicitly or explicitly empowered. How Thai culture is portrayed in these textbooks could reflect the perception of Thai authority in terms of Thai national culture, or what messages they are explicitly or implicitly attempting to communicate to Thai citizens 26/7/20113Kunthida R.
CDA Looking at ideologies through linguistic devices is DA. “CDA is DA with an attitude (Wodak & Meyer 2001 p.96).” CDA aims to uncover social problems, power abuse or domination. Text is treated as an outcome of a semiotic process reflecting certain ideologies (Kress et al. (1997). 26/7/20114Kunthida R.
Culture Oatey and Frankin (2009) – Culture is a complex web of different types of regularities which can include one of the following interconnected key elements: orientations to life and belief, values and principles, perceptions of role and relationships, – rights and obligations associated with them, behavioral rituals, conventions and routines (linguistic and non-linguistic), artefacts and products, – laws, regulations, policies and procedures 26/7/2011Kunthida R.5
Culture 26/7/2011Kunthida R.6 Big C or high culture is generally known as culture in literature, art work, music architecture, education, history, and institution. However, small c culture is culture in the mind, perceptions and “internal culture” (Weaver, 1993).
Research Questions 1. What are the characteristics of Thai culture portrayed in the selected textbooks? – What are the macro-structures of Thai culture in three selected textbooks? 2. How Thai culture is portrayed? – What are discursive strategies used in portraying Thai culture? – What are micro-linguistic units found in these strategies? 26/7/20117Kunthida R.
Tools Word Segmentation and Verification Tool of National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC) Thai National Corpus (TNC) provided by the Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University 26/7/20119Kunthida R.
Methodology 3. Micro- linguistic features 2. Discursive strategies 1. Macro structure (Content) Adapted from Wodak et al. (2009) 26/7/201110Kunthida R.
The Discursive Construction of National Identity Strategies of justification and relativisation Constructive strategies Strategies of perpetuation Strategies of transformation Strategies of demontage (or dismantling) and destruction 26/7/2011Kunthida R.11
Findings Size of corpus: 16 820 word counts Thai: 107 word counts culture: 274 word counts Thai culture: 21 word counts 26/7/201112Kunthida R.
Thai culture Buddhism - Buddhist ceremonies and important days - Arts and architecture Thai cultural traits i.e. humbleness, generosity, forgiveness, smiling, seniority and kinship system The Monarchy Justification of loyalty towards the monarchy Agriculture and water Profession/lifestyle: national and local ceremonies/traditions 26/7/201113Kunthida R.
Macro structures Characteristics of Thai culture – Topics of language: poetry, literary works, proverbs and word puzzles – Religion: Buddhism – Arts: Thai architecture, paintings, sculpture and crafting – Everyday culture: agriculture and water, Thai food and Thai people’s characters – The Monarchy 26/7/201114Kunthida R.
Macro structures 26/7/2011Kunthida R.15 “Big C” culture in the data – Rituals and ceremonies – Traditions – Literature – Architecture – Arts – Religion – Culture traits “Small C” culture in the data – Beliefs stemmed from Buddhism – Loyalty towards the monarchy
Maintenance of Thai culture and Thai culture versus other countries Preservation of Thai culture Cultural traits, laws and rules and physical culture Similarities and differences between Thai and international cultures Thailand versus neighboring countries and Thai versus international culture - Accommodation - Medicine -Food -Outfits and costumes 26/7/201116Kunthida R.
Discussions (1) 1.Due to the genre of data (social science textbooks), metaphors or allusions or fictitious scenarios were not found. 2.Micro-linguistic features of positive discursive strategies are mostly quantifiers, and anthroponymic generic terms. 3.In macro structure, Thai culture is defined and exemplified with “Big C” concept of culture. 26/7/201127Kunthida R.
Discussion (2) 4. Buddhism is used to justified Thai identity in terms of national characters. 5. The absence of personal pronouns (we/they) could be because of the pro-drop nature of Thai language. 6. Solidarity is mostly created with the use of quantifiers and anthroponymic generic terms. 26/7/201128Kunthida R.
Discussion (3) 7. Unification and cohesivation are mostly created by adverbs and adjectives. 8. Preferred national culture model is implied by using the modal verb “must”, and this is not listed in any categories of the framework. – Must appears 34 times in this corpus. 16 out of 34 imply imposed actions, and the rest imply necessity. 26/7/201129Kunthida R.
Limitations Size of data The scope of this research 26/7/201130Kunthida R.
Further research Socio-cultural elements such as hidden social actors involved in the data – Who determines what is “preferred” or “appropriate” attributions of Thai people Three key elements of Thailand as a nation based on meanings on the Thai national flag: nation, religion and the monarchy 26/7/201131Kunthida R.
Conclusion Thai culture is relatively defined with the definition of “high culture”. National identity is constructed through various linguistic strategies and devices aiming at creating solidarity and implying “preferred” national identity model. 26/7/201132Kunthida R.