2 Holography was invented in 1947 by Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor (Hungarian name: Gábor Dénes) (1900– 1979), work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971. It was made possible by pioneering work in the field of physics by other scientists like Mieczysław Wolfke who resolved technical issues that previously made advancements impossible. The discovery was an unexpected result of research into improving electron microscopes at the British Thomson-Houston Company in Rugby, England. The British Thomson-Houston company filed a patent in December 1947 (patent GB685286), but the field did not really advance until the development of the laser in 1960.Hungarian Dennis GaborNobel Prize in PhysicsMieczysław Wolfkeelectron microscopesBritish Thomson-Houston Rugbylaser
13 ==> 1 st order virtual image อยู่หน้าฮอโลแกรม ตำแหน่งเดียวกับวัตถุเดิม ( ) ==> 0 th order คล้ายลำเลเซอร์พุ่งออกจาก แผ่นฮอโลแกรม ==> 1 st order real image อยู่หลังฮอโลแกรม ทำมุม 2 กับแนวภาพเสมือน เลเซอร์ 1st order real 1st order virtual 0th order
18 D. Gabor was born in Budapest, Hungary, and his life-long love of physics started suddenly at the age of 15. He learned the calculus and worked through the textbook in the next two years. With his late brother George, they also built up a little laboratory in their home, where they could repeat most experiments which were modern at that time, such as wireless X-rays and radioactivity. He acquired his degrees in electrical engineering in High Technical School, Berlin (Diploma in 1924, Dr-Ing. in 1927). Though electrical engineering remained his profession, his work was almost always in applied physics. His doctorate work was the development of one of the first high speed cathode ray oscillographs. In 1927 D. Gabor joined the Siemens & Halske AG where he made his first successful inventions; the high pressure quartz mercury lamp with superheated vapor and the molybdenum tape seal, since used in millions of street lamps. In 1933, when Hitler came to power, Gabor left Germany and after a short period in Hungary went to England, where obtained employment with the British Thomson- Houston Co., Rugby. The biography of Dennis Gabor (1900-1979) "You can't predict the future, but you can invent it." - Dennis Gabor
19 The years after the war were the most fruitful. He wrote, among many others, his first papers on communication theory, developed a system of stereoscopic cinematography, and in 1948 carried out the basic experiments in holography, at that time called "wavefront reconstruction". Then, until his retirement in 1967, he improved Wilson chamber, developed holographic microscope, a new electron-velocity spectroscope, flat thin color television tube. Theoretical work included communication theory, plasma theory, magnetron theory. In 1971 Dr. Dennis Gabor was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of holography in 1947. But, in his own words – “We had started 20 years too early. Only in recent years have certain auxiliary techniques developed to the point when electron holography could become a success. On the other hand, optical holography has become a world success after the invention and introduction of the laser”.