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งานนำเสนอกำลังจะดาวน์โหลด โปรดรอ

Photosynthesis What is it ? Where it occurs ? How ? How is its important ? How to measure ?

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งานนำเสนอเรื่อง: "Photosynthesis What is it ? Where it occurs ? How ? How is its important ? How to measure ?"— ใบสำเนางานนำเสนอ:

1 Photosynthesis What is it ? Where it occurs ? How ? How is its important ? How to measure ?

2 Photosynthesis ประกอบด้วย 3 กระบวนการย่อย CO 2 diffusion A = C g d[CO2] Photochemical process (light reaction) 4H 2 O + 2ADP+2NADP + +2p i O 2 +2H 2 O+2ATP+2NADPH +2H + Biochemical process 3CO 2 +9ATP+6NADPH+6H + triose- P+6NADP+9ADP+8P i +3H 2 O

3 CO 2 enzymes/ stroma (CH 2 O) RuBP carboxylase : CO 2 receptor ADP +P i +NADP + PSII PSI Cytochrome ATP + NADPH H 2 O light / atenna O 2 + H + +P i CO 2 + 2H 2 O (CH 2 O) + H 2 O + O 2 The overall chemical reaction

4 CHLOROPLAST  m Lamellae (membranes) : light reaction –stroma lamella (double lamella) –grana lamella (stacked lamella) Stroma : dark reaction

5 Leaf anatomy of C3 vs. C4 plants

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7 Chloroplast and Chlorophyll structure

8 Electron transportation Chlorophyll a,b Carotenoid Reaction centers : absorbed PHOTONS from light energy PSII : ground stage excited stage PSI : Q, Photophosphorylation

9 Energy diagram of the photosynthetic electron transport system Light P 680 O2O2 H2OH2O Chlorophyll a/b NADPH Electron transfer Light P 700 Chlorophyll a Electron transfer Photosystem IPhotosystem II ATP

10 Energy diagram of the photosynthetic electron transport H2OH2O Photo system I H+H+ O2O2 Q Photo system II ATP ADP Fd-Ub Fd NADP + NADPH CO 2 reduction e-e- e-e- e-e- Solar radiation Solar radiation Cty f e-e- Redox potential

11 Radiation vs Photons E = hv = speed of light/wave length E = energy content of the quantum (J/quantum) h = Planck ‘s constant (6.626 x J s) (nm) (x10 3 cm -1 ) (x10 14 s -1 ) (x J quantum -1 )

12 Conversion factors for energy units used in the text 1 electron volt (eV)=1.602 x J 1 watt=1 J s -1 1 kWh=3.6 x 10 6 J 1 Joule=0.239 calories =6.242 x eV 1 cal.= J 1 kJ mol quantum -1=1.036 x eV Plank’s constant=6.62 x Js =4.136 x eVs 1 mol quantum of photon contains Avogadro’s number x particles=1 Eistein

13 Radiation & Light

14 Carbondioxide fixation Biomass or Dry weight = Photosynthesis - Respiration - Dead - Translocation Carbon Balance C 3 species : Calvin cycle ; RUBP 3-PGA C 4 species : Hatch & Slack cycle ; PEP Oxaloacetic Acid etc. Crussulation Acid Metabolism (CAM) : CO 2 fixed during night C 3 vs C 4 : Kranz anatomy

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17 C 3 C 4 and CAM plant CO 2 C 4 Organic acids PEP CO 2 PGA(CH 2 O) C 3 acids RUBP C3C3 C4 CAM MesophyllBundle sheath Mesophyll DarkLight PEP CarboxylaseRuBP Carboxylase

18 พืช C3 vs C4 ลักษณะทางกายภาพต่างกัน C3 ไม่มี Vascular sheath แต่ C4 มี (Kranz anatomy) เอนไซม์ PEPase มีความสามารถจับ CO 2 ดีกว่า เอนไซม์ RUBPase C4 มีอัตราการสังเคราะห์แสงสูงกว่า C3 ( ใน สภาพแสงจัด ) C4 ใช้พลังงานมากกว่า C3 ในการตรึง CO 2 1 โมเลกุล C4 มี RUBP น้อยกว่า C3 C3 ปรับตัวได้ดีในสภาพ เย็นชื้น และ ร้อนชื้น ส่วน C4 ปรับตัวได้ดีในสภาพ ร้อน แห้ง หรือ ชื้น C3 มี Photorespiration ส่วน C4 ไม่มี

19 Cellular respiration The process by which active cells obtain energy. It occurs in mitochondria, there are two coditions : aerobic & anaerobic respiration. The obtained energy was used for maintenance and growth of the cell or organ. Growth respiration : catabolism provides the energy required for biosynthesis and constructive reactions leading to form cellular products used in the crop growth

20 Aerobic respiration has 3 stages : C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Sucrose O2O2 H2OH2O NADH+, ADP NADH, ATP Glycolysis Pyruvic acid TCA Krebs’ cycle e transport chain Oxidative phosphorylation NAD + NADH

21 MITOCHONDRIA C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O +637 kcal Glycolysis : anaerobic respiration aerobic respiration : Krebs cycle ; Oxidative phosphorylation Electron transport chain : ATP, NADPH formed and available for other synthesis of other moplecules for growth, active transport, and metabolic processes. Respiration

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23 Major plant metabolisms Chloroplast : Photosynthesis Mitochondria : Respiration; Krebs cycle Synthesis / Translocation STRUCTURAL compounds cellulose hemicellulose pentosans pectin, ect. STORAGE compounds starch fructosans proteins lipids, ect. ACTIVE CELL compounds nucleic acids enzymes cytochrome chlorophyll phospholipids, ect. Glycolysis O2 O2 O2O2 CO 2 ATP, NADP

24 Photosynthesis vs Respiration Photophosporylation NADPH formed CO 2 reduction CO 2 as substrate H 2 O as substrate O 2 is product CH 2 O is product Oxidative phosphorylation NADP formed O 2 reduction CO 2 is product H 2 O is product O 2 is substrate (CH 2 O) n is substrate and product

25 Photosynthesis vs Respiration if ……. Down Up Stop Up if + O 2 Down if + CO 2 Up if + light Up if + temperature Burst if dark

26 เครื่องมือที่ใช้วัดการสังเคราะห์ด้วยแสง

27 Character of CROPS Photosynthesis Pst Water route Etr/Etm P pot X HI Yield potential Environments SOIL CLIMATE AGRONOMY Pst * Etr/Etm -Res

28 BAMnut model (Azam-Ali Sayed et.al, A Global Mapping Systems for Bambara Groundnut Production. FAO Agricultural Information Management Series) Weather data seed Bambara groundnut Soil water RootW Root Water uptake Water limited growth (WLG) ShootW PodW LeafW Leaf Intercepted radiation Radiation limited growth (LLG)


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